Kâzım Karabekir

Asker, Devlet Adamı, Siyasetçi

26 Ocak, 1948
War Academy
Diğer İsimler
Musa Kâzım Karabekir (tam adı)

Military man, statesman and politician (B. 1882, Istanbul - D. 26th January 1948, Ankara). His full name was Musa Kâzım Karabekir. His father was Mehmet Emin Pasha and his mother was Havva Hanım. His family, who were related to the Afshar branch of the Turkmens, was known as the Karabekiroğulları dynasty in the Kasaba (Kâzımkarabekir) district of Karaman. His elementary education that started in Istanbul continued in Van and Harput by virtue of the duty of his father and he finished it in Mecca. He received his secondary education in İstanbul Fatih Askerî Junior High School and in the Ku­leli Askerî High School. He finished the War College in the year 1902 and he finished the War Academy in the year 1905 (as a chief of staff). After that, he was attributed to the duty of the chief of staff of the region of Bitola. He became a kolağası (senior captain, 1907) by virtue of the success he showed there against Greek and Bulgarian gangs. In this while, he took a role in the foundation of the branches of Bitola and Istanbul of the İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti (T.N. Committee of Union and Progress), together with Enver Bey. After the announcement of the Second Constitutional Era (1908), he was assigned as the Chief of Staff of the 3rd Infantry Division in Edirne (19th November 1908).

Kâzım Bey played an important role in the capture of the barracks of Beyoğlu and the Palace of Yıldız and in the suppressing of the rebellion, as the chief of staff of the Movement Army coming to Istanbul from Thessaloniki because of the “Event of the 31st March” (13th April 1909). He also took part in the suppressing of the rebellion of Albania (1910). He was promoted as a Major on 27th April 1912 and he participated to the Balkan War (1912-13). Even though he was taken prisoner by the Bulgarians during the defense of Edirne, he was released by means of an agreement signed in the same year (1913). He was promoted as a lieutenant colonel in the beginning of the World War One (1914-18). He was sent to Bagdad by being appointed to the Command of the First Expeditionary Force for Iran, however, he was called to Istanbul and he was appointed to the 14th Division Command (6th March 1915) in Kartal. He participated to the wars of Çanakkale together with his division, he battled against French in Kerevizdere and he was promoted as a colonel as a result of the successes he showed there. He was sent to Bagdad (10th November 1915) as the deputy chief of staff of the German Cormer von der Goltz Pasha who was assigned to the 6th Army Command in Iraq and he was appointed as the 18th Army Corps Commander afterwards (1916). He participated to the war made against English in Kut Al Amara. Besides, he battled against Russians in the East as the 2nd Army Corps Commander and the 2nd Deputy Army Commander. He was assigned as the 1st Caucasian Army Corps Commander (31 December 1917) under the 3rd Army in order to compete against the Armenians who increased their terrorizing activities in the region after the Russians withdrew from the war. He took back Erzincan, Erzurum and Hasankale despite the heavy winter conditions and he saved the community of the region from the massacre of the Armenians. He continued his operations in order to take back from the Armenians and Georgians the provinces of Kars, Ardahan and Batum (Elviye-i Selâse) that were emptied by the Russians according to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3rd March 1918). After saving Kars on the date of 25th April 1918, he entered to Gyumri on 15th May. He was promoted to the degree of mirliva (Brigadier General) on 28th July by virtue of his successes and he was entrusted with the task of capturing Armenia and the South Azerbaijan. He beat back the English moving towards Tabriz in order to take Baku on 5th September 1918 and he obtained the command of the Azerbaijan of Iran. Upon the defeat of the Ottoman army in other fronts, he was obliged to move back his troops to Nakhchivan. After the signature of the Armistice of Montrose (30th October 1918), he was called to Istanbul and he didn’t accept the duty of Erkân-ı Harbiyye-i Umumiyye Reisliği (Presidency of General Staff) offered to him. Even though he was assigned to the 14th Army Corps Command in Tekirdağ, he transferred his place of duty to the 15th Army Corps Command in Erzurum (13th March 1919) upon his own request.

Kâzım Pasha arranged a meeting with the members of the Müdafaa-i Hukuk Community when he arrived in Trabzon on 19th April. He met the members of the Müdafaa-i Hukuk Community in Erzurum on 3rd May and he enabled the organization of a congress. Kâzım Pasha, who met with Mustafa Kemal at that time in Erzurum, informed Mustafa Kemal Pasha that he was still accepting him as his commandant as before, even though he was discharged from inspectorship and he quitted soldiering on 8th July. The authorities of Kâzım Pasha were increased even more in consequence of his appointment as the Deputy Inspector of the Third Army on 21st July. Upon the directive of the Ottoman War Office requesting the arrestment and the delivery of Mustafa Kemal and Ra­uf (Orbay) on the eighth day of the Erzurum Congress, he indicated that he would not fulfill this directive. He also helped Mustafa Kemal in the reunion and in the successful result of the Sivas Congress. He was appointed to the Command of The Eastern Front (14th January 1920) according to the Nation-wide Movement Principles Plan. He made the English officers arrested in order to control the implementation of the armistice application. While he was continuing his mission in the East even though he was elected as a congressman from Edirne in the Grand National Assembly (TBMM), the government of TBMM also gave him the duty of the governorship of Erzurum.

Kâzım Pasha looked after thousands of children who became orphans as a result of the Armenian atrocity. He founded educational institutions such as the Sanayi School (T.N. Industrial), Leylî (boarding) Eytam İbtidaî School, Erzurum Ana School, Work Agency, Sıhhiye School (T.N. Medical), Sarı­kamış Askerî School (T.N. Military School) and Sarı­kamış Ana School by using the possibilities of the army corps. Kâzım Pasha, who was personally involved with children during this while, came to Ankara after the victory (15th October 1922) and continued his duty of congressman from Edirne. He presided the İzmir İktisat (T.N. Economy) Congress incorporated in the dates of 17th February – 4th March 1923. He was elected as a congressman from Istanbul in the second period (29th June 1923). When his duty of the Command of The Eastern Front ended (21st October 1923), he was appointed as the Inspector of the First Army, having its central office in Ankara. When he had to make a choice between being a congressman and being a military man, he selected being a congressman. He took part among the ones who left the Halk Party (CHP) and who founded the Terakkiperver Cumhuri­yet Party, together with his thirty friends and he was elected as the president of this party (27th November 1924). After the party was dissolved on 3rd June 1925, he was arrested with the argument that he was aware of the Murder Attempt against Mustafa Kemal in Izmir (15th June 1926) and that he didn’t notify it. He was questioned in the Independence Tribunal of Izmir and he was declared innocent. When his duty of congressman of the second period finished on the date of 5th December 1927, he was made retired. A close watch on him was kept in his home in Erenköy, where he retired into a sort of seclusion. He became a candidate from Istanbul in the elections of 1930, however, he wasn’t elected.

Writings against Kâzım Pasha were published in the newspaper “Milliyet” with the signature “The Notebook of a Habitant of Ankara” starting from the date of 27th April 1933. He sent a disclaimer for the writings reviling at his services during the War of Independence, however the disclaimer was not published. He wrote a book, but this book was burned in the printing house, his home was investigated and the other books he wrote were taken. When İsmet İnönü became the President of the Republic, he became the congressman from Istanbul with his support (31st December 1938) and he was elected as the President of TBMM (23rd July 1946). He carried on this duty until his death. When he deceased, he was firstly buried in the ground in the Cemetery of Air Martyrs and later on he was transferred to the State Cemetery created in the Atatürk Forest Farm (30th August 1988)… Kâzım Karabekir had the habitude of recording the things he lived day by day. The works he wrote were mostly in the type of memories. İstiklal Harbimiz(1960) is the most important work of Kâzım Karabekir. This work, examining the events starting from the Armistice of Montrose until the Treaty of Lausanne with the relevant documents, was collected by the prosecution office; however, it was released free by the court afterwards. He had also research-survey books on topics of religion, military and war. He also wrote children’s plays.


MAIN WORKS (Memories and History):

İstiklal Harbimiz (Istanbul 1960), Hayatım (Istanbul 1995), İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti (1896-1909) Neden Kuruldu? Nasıl Kuruldu? Nasıl İdare Olundu? (1993), Birinci Cihan Harbine Ne­den Girdik? Nasıl Girdik? Nasıl İdare Ettik? (1938); Erzincan ve Erzurum’un Kurtuluşu (1939, 1994), Sarıkamış, Kars ve Ötesi (1994), İstiklal Harbimizin Esasları (1933), Pashaların Hesaplaşması (1992), Karabekir Anlatıyor (1993), Pashaların Kavgası: Atatürk-Karabekir (1995). 

REFERENCE: Feridun Kandemir / Kâzım Karabekir (1948),  Tahsin Demiray / İstiklal Harbimizin Müdafaası (1969),  Ziya Tütün­cü / Şark Fatihi General Kâzım Karabekir (1975), Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu / Kazım Karabekir (1991), Nusret Baycan / “Çeşitli Cephelerde Kâzım Karabekir” (Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, IV / 11, 1988), İhsan Işık / Yazarlar Sözlüğü (1990, 1998) - Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi (2001, 2004 - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) – Ünlü Devlet Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 1, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013), Yaşar Semiz / “Atatürk ve Kâzım Karabekir Paşa, Bir Dostluğun Dargınlığa Dönüş­mesi” (Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, sayı: 4, Konya 1997), TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi (c. 25, 2002).


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