Şeyh Galib

Divan Şairi

03 Ocak, 1799
Diğer İsimler
Mehmet (asıl adı), Galib Dede

Divan poet (B. 1757, Istanbul- D. January 3, 1799). His real name is Mehmet. He is known as Galib Dede. He is the son of a poet and scholar Mevlevi dervish named Mustafa Resid Effendi. He was born in a house around the Yenikapı Mevlevi House. He was grown up in the Mevlevi circles, reading the works of Mevlana Celaleddin. He considered his father as a mentor (someone that shows the path to God, the truth) and learned Turkish and Persian from him. He has received language and literature courses from Hoca Neşat Effendi. He worked as a civil servant at the Ottoman Palace. He has written a lot of poems within these years, and compiled his poems he wrote with Esad and Galip pseudonyms into a Divan (1780) when he was only twenty four. In 1782, as a response of reading and praising the Hayrabad mesnevi of poet Nabi in a gathering; he said that this work was not so important and then he was invited to write a more superior one and he wrote his famous mesnevi Hüsn ü Aşk in six months. When he was around thirty years old, he visited Mevlana Lodge and Tomb and started to live in Konya (1784); but he returned to Istanbul upon his family’s request and completed his ordeal in Yenikapı Mevlevi House (1787). After living for a while as secluded for a while in Sütlüce, he was appointed as the sheikh of Galata Mevlevihane in 1791. After his appointment as a sheikh, the decayed Galata Lodge was repaired by Sultan Selim The Third, who was known with his close relations to Galib Dede and Mevlevi Order. As the Sultan has conducted frequent visits to this place; a water-tank with fountain was built along with a Sultan’s gathering place for their chats with Sheikh Galib. The poet has eulogies for Selim the Third, historical essays about his activities and poems written for Beyhan Sultan, daughter of Selim. This proximity between the Ottoman palace and Galib Dede made some other groups jealous. Sheikh had two sons named Ahmet and Mehmet, and a daughter named Zübeyde; and he became sick (according to some rumors, tuberculosis) and dies when he was forty two years old. A huge funeral ceremony was organized for the poet. His tomb is in the garden of the old Mevlevi House, which was turned into Divan Literature Museum on December 27, 1976.

Şeyh Galib is known as the poet in Turkish Literature who had understood Fuzuli, Nabi and Nedim in its best. We see strong traces of these poets in his poems. He has created a new imaginary world adding to their language and form aspects and has achieved to use a new language with the same Divan poetry material. Şeyh Galib has produced the best examples of a way of expressing by delicate and distant connotations named Sebk-i Hindi (Indian style); and his poetry style was considered as rich in imagination, delicate in style, sincere in feelings and colorful but hard-to-comprehend symbolic features.

Şeyh Galib is considered as the last greatest poet of Divan Literature; and his work Hüsn ü Aşk is an allegorical work that explains the challenges to reach the mystic love; and it still has importance until today with its subject and writing technique. Hüsn ü Aşk is a mesnevi written in “mef’ûlü mefâilün faûlün” prosody with more than 2000 verses. The heroes of this mesnevi do not have bodies, they are not historical or epic heroes; but they are directly Hüsün (beauty) and Love itself which has inclined to this beauty. The tribe to which Hüsn and Aşk are members of is called Beni Muhabbet (sons of love) tribe; the school to which they attend is named Mekteb-i Edeb (school of literature) and the teacher who taught them lectures is named Molla-yı Cünun (teacher who is madly in love). Another important feature of this work in terms of language is that it includes simple Turkish verses such as “Bir sürçen atın başı kesilmez”, “Can vermek olur da dönmek olmaz” mottos. Şeyh Galip notifies the greatest resource of his work by saying “I took the mystery from Mesnevi / And if I stole I stole public good”.

The most famous of poems in Galib’s Divan is a Naat-i Şerif which is said for Prophet Mohammad. This poem was read in several religious gatherings and even in mosques. The chapter of odes in Divan mainly consists of poems about love, contemplation and mysticism. The classical poems of Divan poetry are said in a way specific to poems. Besides the ones related with love of Mevlana, there is another ode under the impact of Ali Şir Nevai, which reveals the poet’s familiarity with Central Asian poetry. In the final part of Odes, there is a elegy said for Esrar Dede, close friend of the poet.

Besides Divan and Hüsn ü Aşk; poet also has two other works named Şerh-i Cezire-i Mesnevi and Es-Sohbetü’s Safiyye. First one of those is the paraphrase of Yusuf Sineçak’s work named Cezire-i Mesnevi which was arranged by choosing hundred verses from each volume of Mevlana Celaledd,n’s Mesnevi. Second one is the paraphrasing of the work Er-Risaletü’l-Behiyye by Trabzonlu Kusec Ahmed Dede. The work was written with the thought that God can be reached via knowledge. Şeyh Galib has affected many poets such as Ziya Paşa, Abdülhak Hamit, Keçecizade İzzet Molla, Yenişehirli Avni and Ahmet Haşim; replies were written for his poems. Beşir Ayvazoğlu summarizes these effects as follows in one of his books:

“The real Şeyh Galib fashion was started by Fecr-i Ati poets, which is considered as an extension of Serveti- Fünün literature. Köprülüzade Mehmed Fuad is an important representative of this group. In his poem published at Mehasin, which is named Şeyh Galib, he honored the poem of Hüsn ü Aşk. Tahsin Nahit from the same group has a poem named Bahar, which is derived from the line ‘Şemîm-i gül getürür bağa kârbân-ı bahâr’ of Galib.

“This interest which was gathered around Şeyh Galib in the beginning of century has also affected Mehmed Ziya Bey, who was called “person of memorial” as he was interested in organizing memorials. The “Galib Dede Memorial” was organized in Galata Mevlevi House on Teşrinievvel 13, 1328 (1912) with the support of Hak newspaper and Süleyman Nazif, Recâîzade Mahmut Ekrem, Şahabeddin Süleyman and Köprülüzâde Mehmed Fuad Bey have made speeches about the life and literature personality of the poet. Besides, articles of Veled Celebi and Ahmed Hikmet in İlave-i Hak and an article of Kopruluzade Mehmet Fuad in Servet-I Fünun were published about Galib. (…)

“Mustafa Seyit Sütüven and Mahir Iz have sang a reply to Galib’s “görmüşüz” ode; Rıfkı Melul Meriç has used the lines ‘Bir şu’lesi var ki şem’-i cânın / Fânûsuna sığmaz âsmânın’ as epigraph in his poem named Aşk. Same lines were also used by Atilla Ilhan as epigraph at the start of Şehnaz Faslı section of Yasak Sevişmek. In the poetry of Asaf Halet Celebi, we do not see the direct impact of Şeth Galib; but we should mention that he has a significant series of articles published at Türk Yurdu journal about the poet’s life, works and literature.

“”Behçet Necatigil has built his poem named Ölü upon the image Ateş denizlerinde mumdan kayıklar’, which he took from Hüsn ü Aşk. His poem named Kalp Kalesi carries the atmosphere of Hüsn ü Aşk to our day. There are images in Kalp Kalesi such as atım geç ateşi ve.. Hüsün’ which have clear traces of Galib; and we see an obvious impact of Şeyh Galib on the poetry of Yavuz, where he takes the saying of ‘Dayanır mı şişedir bu’ and re-says as ‘dayanır mı Hüsn ü Aşk bu’. Hilmi Yavuz has suggested to use Galib’s Hoşça bak zatına’ instead of the widespread usage of “Take care of yourself”.

“In Sezai Karakoç’s Fecir Devleti, which gives his utopia, the master builder of the new establishment is Şeyh Galib.” (Beşir Ayvazoğlu, Şeyh Galib Book)

“Galib Dede, while defining his pen at the process of writing his story, he replaces it for the Mecnun who follows his “dream Leyla” or for the “reed flute” which is inspired by Şems-i Tebrizi. And he revolutionizes the literature by his work which is written through a pen transformed into a reed flute that expresses the feeling of love which exists in human being as a necessity of existence and which is revealed as a high stimulant:

  “Bu resme koyup beyân-ı aşkı

Söyler bana dâsitân-ı aşkı” (Necmettin Turinay)


Divan (Bulak, 1836, 1937, Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, selections, 1971; Şeyh Galib Divanı prepared by Muhsin Kalkışım, 1994), Hüsn ü Aşk (1887,1923, A. Gölpınarlı, simplifying 1968, Orhan Okay ve Hüseyin Ayan tar., 1975), Şerh-i Cezire-i Mesnevi (selections and annotations from Yusuf Sineçak’s mesnevi), Es-Sohbetü’s-Safiyye.

REFERENCE: Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı / Şeyh Galib (1953), Âsaf Halet Çelebi / Eski Türk Şiirinde Reform: Galib Dede (Türk Yurdu, issue: 263-269, December 1956), Sedit Yüksel / Şeyh Galib / Eserlerinin Dil ve Sanat Değeri (1963), Bursalı Mehmed Tahir / Osmanlı Müellifleri II (1972), Orhan Okay / Şeyh Galib-Hüsn ü Aşk (1975), Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar / 19. Asır Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi (1976), Sezai Karakoç / Zamana Adanmış Sözler (1985), Hüsrev Hatemi / Hoşça Bak Zatına (1989), Beşir Ayvazoğlu / Şeyh Galib Kitabı (author and ve editor, 1995), Behçet Necatigil / Edebiyatımızda İsimler Sözlüğü (ed. 18, 1999), Şükran Kurdakul / Şairler ve Yazarlar Sözlüğü (exp.ed. 6, 1999), İhsan Işık / Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi, 2001, 2006, 2009) – Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (ed.2, 2009) – Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, vol. 2, 2013).



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