Abdülhak Hamid Tarhan

Yazar, Şair

02 Ocak, 1852
13 Nisan, 1937

Poet and writer (b. 2 January 1852, İstanbul – d. 12 April, 1937). When he was five, he started to take private lessons. Then he went on to study in at Köşekapısı Public School, Hisar Secondary School and Paris Ecole Nationale (1862). After his return to Turkey, for a while he attended Robert College. He started to work as a civil servant at the Translation Office. He went to Tehran with his father who had been appointed the Ambassador of Iran (1886). His father died two years later and he returned to İstanbul (1868) where he worked in various state offices and married Fatma (1871). His first appointment as a diplomat was as the secretary to the Paris Ambassador (1876). After a year and a half, he was moved from his post and called to İstanbul. Later he was appointed as the Consul of Poti (Caucasia, 1881), Golos (Greece, 1882) and Bombay (India, 1883) respectively. His wife, Fatma, contracted tuberculosis in Bombay and on their return to İstanbul, she passed away in Beirut (April 21, 1885). He wrote his famous poem Makber (The Grave) after his wife’s death.

Returning to İstanbul, Abdülhak Hamid continued working as a representative in offices abroad. One year later he was appointed as the secretary to the London Ambassador and to undersecretary (1886). After he had been the Ottoman Ambassador in Brussels for four years (1908-12), he became a member of the Senate and there he met his forth wife Lüsyen, whom he married twice. Before Lüsyen, he had been married for twelve years to his second wife, Nelly, an English woman and was divorced from his third wife, Cemile. After the declaration of Republic, he became the parliamentary deputy of İstanbul in 1928. He is buried in Zincirlikuyu Cemetery.

Hamid, who is regarded as the greatest poet of the Tanzimat period (reform period, 1839) and called “Şair-i Azam” (the greatest of all poets), introduced new verse styles and a Western way of looking at Turkish Poetry. However, he couldn’t refrain from using complex and sophisticated language in his poetry. But he displayed his creativity and his philosophical concepts with great mastery in all his works. Making use of the opportunity of having been to many countries and continents, in his plays he concentrated on the topics covering the historical events of the Turkish, Arabians, Assyrians and Greeks. He wrote a majority of his plays in verse, yet, since he was not meticulous enough with his style, his plays were not staged. Also, Hamid was a man whose public speeches were admired. His poems and plays have been republished by various publishers in recent years.


POETRY: Sahra (The Desert, 1879), Makber (The Grave, 1885), Ölü (The Corpse, 1885), Hacle (1886), Bunlar Odur (These are Her, 1885), Divaneliklerim Yahut Belde (My Madness or the Town, 1885), Bir Sefirenin Hasbihali, (Chat With an Ambassadress, 1886), Bala’dan Bir Ses (A Voice from Bala, 1912), Validem (My Mother, 1913), İlham-ı Vatan (Inspiration of the Motherland, 1916), Tayflar Geçidi (The Parade of Spectrums, 1917), Ruhlar (The Spirits, 1922), Garam (My Passion, 1923).

PLAYS: Macera-yı Aşk (Love Affair, prose, 1873; in verse, 1910), Sabr-u Sebat (Perseverance in Patience, 1875, staged at İstanbul City Theatres in 1961), İçli Kız (The Oversensitive Girl, 1875), Duhter-i Hindu (The Girl of India, 1876), Nazife (Nazife, 1876, together with Abdüllahü’s-Sağir, 1917), Nesteren (Dog Rose, 1878), Tarık Yahut Endülüs’ün Fethi (Tarık Or The Conquest Of Spain, 1879, simplified by Sadi Irmak and Behçet Kemal Çağlar, staged at İstanbul City Theatres, 1962), Tezer Yahut Abdurrahman-ı Salis (Tezer or Abdurrahman III., 1880), Eşber (Eşber, 1880), Zeynep (Zeynep, 1908), İlhan (İlhan, 1913), Liberte (Freedom, 1913), Finten (Finten, 1916), İbn-i Musa Yahut Zadülcemal (İbn-i Musa or Zadülcemal, 1917), Sardanapal (Sardanapal, 1917), Abdüllahi’s Sağir (Little Abdullah, 1917), Yadigar-ı Harb (The Souvenir of The War, 1917), Hakan (1935), Cünun-ı Aşk (Insanity Of Love, serial, not published, 1917), Kanuni’nin Vicdan Azabı (Remorse of Süleyman The Magnificent, 1937, not published).

OTHER WORKS: Mektuplar (Letters, collected by Süleyman Nazif, two volumes, 1916), Hatırat (Memories, serials in the newspapers İkdam and Vakit, 1924-25), Yusuf Mardin wrote about the years Abdülhak Hamid spent in London in a novel and published it under the name of Abdülhak Hamid’in Londrası (Abdülhak Hamid’s London). İnci Enginün translated his plays into modern Turkish, published in seven volumes (1998-2002). 

REFERENCE: Şahabettin Süleyman / Abdülhak Hamit, Hayatı ve Sanatı (1913), Faik Ali Ozansoy / Şair-i Âzâm'a Mektup (1923), Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan / Hâtırât (İkdam ve Vakit'te tefrika, 1924-25), Mehmet Zeki / Türkiye Teracimi Ahval Ansiklopedisi (c. II, 1929), Orhan Seyfi Orhon / Abdülhak Hamid (1937), Necip Fazıl Kısakürek / Abdülhak Hamid ve Dolayısıyla (1937), Fevziye Abdullah Tansel / Hususi Mektuplarına Göre Namık Kemal ve Abdülhak Hamid (1949), Hikmet Dizdaroğlu / Abdülhak Hamit (1953), Gündüz Akıncı / Abdülhak Hamit (1954), Asım Bezirci /  Abdulhak Hamit ve Tarık / Yahut Endülüs'ün Fethi (1966), Orhan Okay / Abdülhak Hamid'in Romantizmi (1971), Yusuf Sıtkı Mardin / Abdulhak Hamid'in Londra'sı (1976), Yusuf Sıtkı Mardin / Abdulhak Hamid'in Londra Yılları (1982), Turgut Uyar / Bir Şiirden (1982), İnci Enginün / Abdülhak Hamid Tarhan (1986), Feyzi Halıcı / Parlamenter Şairler (1990), Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Albümü 1920-1991 (1994), Âdile Ayda / Bir Demet Edebiyat (1998), Taha Toros / Türk Edebiyatından Altı Renkli Portre (1998), Yılmaz Taşçıoğlu / Abdülhak Hamid Tarhan (1999), İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal İnal / Son Asır Türk Şairleri (c. II, 2000), Baki Asiltürk / Osmanlı Seyyahlarının Gözüyle Avrupa (2000), Serap İncegümüş / Gezi edebiyatımıza önemli bir katkı (Cumhuriyet Kitap, 26.4.2001), Mehmet Nuri Yardım / Edebiyatımızın Güleryüzü (2002), Doç. Dr. İsmail Parlatır / Tanzîmat Şiiri: Abdülhak Hâmit Tahran / Büyük Türk Klâsikleri (cilt:8, 2004), Mehmet Atilla Maraş / Şair Milletvekilleri 1 - 22. Dönem 1920-2005 (2005), İhsan Işık / Yazarlar Sözlüğü (1990, 1998) - Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi (2001, 2004) – Encyclopedia of Turkish Authors (2005) - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) - Ünlü Edebiyatçılar (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 4, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).


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