İmam Buharî

Hadis Bilgini

21 Temmuz, 810
31 Ağustos, 869
Diğer İsimler
Ebu Abdullah Muhammed bin İsmail bin İbrahim bin el-Mugîre bin Merdezbeh el’Cufî el-Buhârî (tam adı)

Scholary of hadith (B. July 21st, 810, Bukhara / Uzbekistan – D. August 31st, 869 Samarkand). His full name was Ebu Abdullah Muhammed bin İsmail bin İbrahim bin el-Mugîre bin Merdezbeh el’Cufî el-Buhârî. He became a Muslim by the interceding of the governor of Bukhara, Yemân el-Cûfi. We do not know much about Bukhari’s father and his descendants. His father died when he was just a baby and he grew up under the education of his mother. He memorized the Koran at an early age and learned Arabic. The wealth left from his father helped him to learn science without being dependent on anyone. He began to learn hadith (Prophet Muhammad's words) when he was eleven years old. He went to pilgrimage with his mother and his brother Ahmet when he was sixteen years old. He stayed in Mecca to improve his knowledge when his mother and brother returned to Bukhara (825).

The book he wrote known as “Sahih-i Buharî” later became the first book in the series called “Kütüb-i Sitte”. He was called as “İmâm” since he was a scholar who knew more than 300,000 hadiths with their base; as “Buharî” since he was from Bukhara and he became famous with the name “İmâm-ı Buharî”. Buharî is considered as the greatest hadith scholar of Islam (hadith commentator, scholar of hadith).

 Buharî who was born 178 years after the death of Hz. Muhammad, collected the hadiths by hearing from public and with his own research. Besides the Koran, he is known as the creator of the motto of the hadith (the rule, the base) within Islam with the works of hadith he had formed. According to his own testimony, Buharî learned the hadith information from more than one thousand teachers. It was stated he also knew the basis of the hadiths he received from his sheikhs and he didn’t give reputation to the narrations with poor basis.

Buharî collected the fatwas of the sahabe (T.N. who saw the prophet) and tabiin (T.N. who saw someone that knew the prophet) until the age of eighteen. He wrote his work "Tarîhü'l-Kebir" at the tomb of our Prophet. Other than Mecca and Medina, he traveled to the scientific centers of that period such as Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Cairo, Nishapur, Balkh, Merv, Askalan, Dımeşk, Hums, Rey and learned hadith and other religious information from more than one thousand scholars of hadith. He wrote his works “Kitâbu Kadâya’s-Sahabe ve’t- Tâbiin” ile “et-Târîhü’l-Kebîr” when he was eighteen.

He went to Damascus, Egypt, Basra, and Baghdad to improve his knowledge. He stayed in Hijaz for six years for this purpose. Yet he had not stayed with learning and communicating hadith, he was also interested in poetry. However, he did not write much poetry. He had an acute mind and the ability to memorize. He was slim and tall. He was looking as gentle as a dove when he became old. He was very careful about science and he did not want to talk unfounded. He used a very smooth language about others. He said “I am willing to meet God as without backbitten anyone”. Although his knowledge of religion was more than anyone else, he even never used insulting words about the narrators (rumor tellers) who demonstrated weakness. He would say “There is controversy about that” even for someone known with mendacity. His most severe word on someone was the sentence “his hadith shall not be received”.

 Even though Buharî shared his knowledge with everyone who wanted to study this science, he stayed away from the statesmen and accepted that going to their palaces humiliates the science and he would bear all the difficulties for this purpose. When the governor of Khorasan Hâlid b. Ahmed ez-Zühlî sent one of his men to him and notified that he had desired to listen the “el-Câmi’us-sahîh”, “et-Târihu’l-kebîr” and his other works from him he rejected this request. He said that he couldn’t humiliate the science and could not bring it to the others, if he really wanted he should have come to the mosque or the house where he was reading the hadiths, if he didn’t want that too he could ban reading hadiths. He also informed that he didn’t withhold the science due to the hadith of Hz. Muhammad saying “the gem of fire will be shot in the mouth of a person who avoids teaching what is asked of him”. He also rejected the request of the governor of Bukhara to give lessons only to his children with the ground that the information should not be allocated to specific people. Upon this, the governor provided some of his close men to claim that Buharî had some ideas incompatible with the al-Sunnah (T.N. which complies with the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad). Then, on the basis of this claim, he exiled him from his own country. Buharî then set out to go to Samarkand. He visited his relatives in the town of Hartenk which was on the way to Samarkand. But he fell ill and could not go to Samarkand. He died on the night of Ramadan and he was buried there the next day (Friday, September 1870).

His clerk Muhammed b. Ebû Hatim, whom Buharî loved and took care of as his own son, said that he had loved to shoot arrows and only two of the arrows had not hit the target from the ones he had shot for years and no one could have competed with him in this regard. The moral couplets of him, which are in some of the books, reflected his taste of poetry.

The appreciating expressions of the scientist who closely knew Buharî gives an idea about his scientific character and authority. His teachers Nuaym b. Hammâd and the hadith scholar Yakûb b. İbrahim ed-Devraki said “Buharî is the scribe of this nation”. Muhammed b. Beşşâr, one of the hodjas of Basra known as Bündâr, expressed that he hadn’t seen any scientist like Buharî and he was proud of Buharî when he came to Basra. His teacher İshak b. Râhûye, known with his deep knowledge of hadith and fiqh (Islamic law), said that if Buharî had been born in the period of Buharî Hasan-ı Basrî, everyone would have to refer to him since he had known the hadith and fiqh very well, after suggesting the hadith scholars to “write a hadith from this young man”.  Again, people told to Ali b. Medinî, who was one of his teachers from Basra and one of the rare hadith scholars known with title “emîrü’l-mü’minîn fi’l-hadîs”, as“Buharî only acts modestly near him”, İbnü’l-Medinî replied to this as “Don’t mind him, his eyes has never seen someone like him”. One of his other teachers Amr b. Ali el-Fellâs said that no hadith could have been called a hadith if Buharî hadn’t known it. İmam Müslim expressed his love for him by saying “Only who are jealous of you can get frustrated by you, I bear witness that there is no one like you in the world”. İbn Huzeyme said “I haven’t seen anyone who knows and memorized the hadiths of the Prophet better than Buharî under this open sky”. Two of his teachers Muhammed b. Selâm el-Bikendî and Abdullah b. Yûsuf et-Tinnisî had him correct their books of hadith. When Humeydî had a dispute in a matter of hadith with one of the hadith scholars, he assigned his eighteen year old student Bukhari as the referee.


Câmiu’s-Sahih (“Sahîh-i Buharî “, it is accepted as the most precious book of the world after the Koran by the Muslims), Tarihu’l Kebir (It was published as four volumes in 1941-54 and three volumes in 1959-63 in Haydarabad), Târihu’l-Evsât, Tarihu's-Sagîr (A summary of Tarihu’l Kebir’), Et-Tarihu fi Ma’rifeti Ruvati’l-Hadîs ve Nükâti’l Âsâr ve’s Sünen ve Temyizü Sikatihim min Züafâihim ve Târihu Vefâtihim, Eet-Tevârîhu'l Ensâb, Kitâbu’l Künâ, Edebü’l-Müfred, Refu’l-Yedeyn fi’s-Salati, Kitâbu’l-Kiraati Halfe’l-imam, Hayrü’l Kelâm fi Kiraati Halfi’l (Published with the title “İmam” with its Urdu translation in 1299 in Delhi and in 1320 in Cairo), Halku’l-Ef’ali’l-ibâd ve’r-Redd Ale’l Cehmiyye (Published in 1306 in Delhi), El-Akîde yahut et-Tevhîd, Abarü’s Sifat (A work about hadith).

REFERENCE:  Hüseyin K. Ece / Buharî (1985), Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi (1998), Dinler Tarihi Ansiklopedisi (1999) İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013) - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (C. 12, 2017).


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