İbn-i Sina

Matematik Bilgini, Astronom, Tıp Doktoru, Felsefeci, Hukukçu, Şair

Diğer İsimler
Ebu Ali el-Hüseyn b. Abdullah b. el-Hasan b. Ali b. Sina, Hüseyin, Avicenna...

Physician, astronomer, mathematician, lawyer, ethicist, philosopher, poet (B. August, 980, Afşana village /Babkent / Kharmisen / Bukhara – D. June-July 1037, Hamadan). His full name was Ebu Ali el-Hüseyn b. Abdullah b. el-Hasan b. Ali b. Sina. His real name was Hüseyin. He was known as Ebu Ali Sina, İbn-i Sina in the east and with the name Avicenna / Auiseppa as the "the prince of the philosophers" in Europe. He was also recognized by the title of “eş-Şeyhü'r-Reîs” given to him by the scholars and thinkers of the Middle Ages in order to express his unique position in the field of science and philosophy. He was also given attributes such as "Hüccetü'1-Hak, Şerefü'l-Mülk, el-Düstûr". Originally, his father Abdullah from Belh, settled in the capital, Bukhara (986) with his family in the period of Sâmânî Monarch, Nûh b. Mansûr and became one of the state elders. His father, who had a good education, was also the first teacher of İbn-i Sina.

The childhood and youth of İbn-i Sina passed in the last period of the reign of Sâmanoğulları. He had the opportunity to encounter works about philosophy, geometry, and Indian mathematics and review them in family atmosphere; he became familiar with philosophical issues at a young age. Due to having a strong memory and intelligence, he attracted attention at an early age. According to his testimony, he memorized the Koran at the age of ten, he examined the literature. He learnt the spirit and mind issues from his father who was a believer of İsmailî. His father gave him near attar to learn Indian arithmetic. He also continued to take law lessons from İsmail el-Zahid. Then, he became a student of Ebu Abdullah el-Natilî who came to Bukhara and who was an authority in philosophical issues. İbn-i Sina impressed el-Natilî with the explanations he made about the books he read. Later, he studied books on logic. He reviewed the books of Euclid and the book el-Mecesti of Ptolemy. After the departure of El-Natilî to Karkanc, he studied physics and mathematics books with comments. He became proficient on medicine by reading medicine books. İbn-i Sina was sixteen years old when he continued to review medicine along with the Islamic law. By focusing on metaphysics, İbn-i Sina read the Arabic translations of Aristotle's Metafizik. Then he reviewed the book Fî Ağrad Kitabu mâ ba’d et-Tabia (on the subject of Aristotle's metaphysics) of Fârâbî.

At that time, he was called to treat the Sultan of Bukhara Nuh b. Mansur when he became ill. İbn-i Sina, who cured the Sultan, also benefited from the palace library books. İbn-i Sina, who was eighteen old years during that period, mastered all sciences. He left Bukhara and went to Karkanc. He worked together with Ebu’l-Hüseyin el-Sahli there. He traveled to Nesa, Baverd, Tus, Şikkan, Semnikan and Câcerm. He went to Cürcan, next to Sultan Qaboos. He transferred to Duhistan after the imprisonment of Qaboos, and then he returned to Cürcan again. He came to Rey to serve the wife and son of Mecd ed-Devle. He treated Mecd ed-Devle’nin who was down in melancholy. Then he entered the service of Kadbanaveyh by going to Qazvin and Hamedan. İbn-i Sina who went next to and cured the sultan Şems ed-Devle accepted the offer of being the vizier. He escaped and hid himself in the house of Ebu Said İbn Dahdûk for forty days. However, he was imprisoned by the military. When the Sultan became ill, he was brought to the palace and became the vizier for the second time. When the Sultan died, he wrote a letter to Alâüddevle declaring his wish to enter his service. He was imprisoned in the castle for four months by the new sultan Tâc el-Mülk who received this news. When he was released from the prison, he went to Isfahan, near Sultan Alâüddevle. He caught colic disease in Hamedan where he went with the Sultan; he died and was buried there.

He wrote his book el-Hikmetü’l-Arûdiyye that summarized all sciences, when he was twenty one years old upon a request of his neighbor Ebu’l-Hüseyin el-Arûdî. He presented all sciences except mathematics in this work. He wrote the book el-Hâsıl ve’l-Mahsûl for his neighbor Ebu Bekir el-Berkî. He wrote the book called el-Birr ve’l-İsm about moral issues upon the request of the same person. İbn-i Sina said that Ebu Bekir el-Berkî had the only copy of this book. He wrote the books el-Mebde’ ve’l-Meâd and el-Ersâdu’l-Külliye for el-Şirazî in Cürcan. He wrote the beginning of El-Kanûn and some parts of other works there. He began to write eş-Şifa in the palace of Şems ed-Devle. He wrote the books Hayy b. Yakzan, Hidayât and Kulunç during his imprisonment in Rey for four months. He completed eş-Şifa in Esfahan. Then he wrote en-Necat. He wrote his book Danişname-i Alâi in Persian in Hemedan. He wrote the draft of his book Lisanu’l-Arab.  

İbn-i Sina was in the Fârâbî School in the tradition of Islamic philosophy. In a sense, he was a student and successor of Fârâbî. It can be said that Fârâbî and İbn-i Sina were the people who had developed and institutionalized the philosophy founded by El-Kindî. Therefore, Fârâbî and İbn-i Sina come to mind first when the philosophy in the Islamic world after the 11th century is mentioned. İbn-i Sina was also a historian of philosophy, physicians and science historian, the books such as el-Kânûn fi't-Tıbb and eş-Şifâ are the evidences of this. İbn-i Sina created encyclopedia of the philosophy and sciences for the first time in the science of thought history of Islam. He produced voluminous works in disciplines such as logic, nature, arithmetic and metaphysics. In addition, his interpretation of the some of the surahs in Koran, his entry into the religious issues directly by discussing namaz (T.N. prayer time), faith, prophecy and after-life, led to more acceptances of his works in the Islamic world. İbn-i Sina was also one of the famous poets of his time. He was one of the founders of rubai style in East, especially the Persian literature. His works were translated into Latin and other Western languages after the 11th century and had a significant impact in the West. Thus, he influenced both the Islamic and Western thoughts directly; therefore many studies have been done on his personality, ideas, and works. 

WORKS: 

eş-Şifâ' (written in encyclopedia style: consists of logic, nature, arithmetic and theology sections. 22 volumes, Cairo, 1952-1983), en-Necât (gives information on the basics of philosophy), el-Îşârât ve't-Tenbîhât (the subjects addressed in eş-Şifâ are presented with a new systematic way here), Dânişnâme-i 'Alâ'î /Hikmet-i'Alâ'î (written in encyclopedia style and in Persian, can be considered as his first philosophy book), el-Mebde' ve 'l-Me'âd (about metaphysics and moral), Uyûnü'l-Hikme (about logic, nature and metaphysics), et-Ta'lîkât (course notes about the basics of philosophy), el-Mübâhaşât (the answers of his student’s questions asked to him), Hayy b. Yakzân (about the power of human body and soul), el-Hikmetü'l-Meşrikiyye (logic, nature, arithmetic and metaphysics), el-İnsâf (20 volumes, responds to the criticism of people who don’t understand Aristotle enough), el-Hidâye (systematic information about the logic, nature, theology part of philosophy), el-Hikmetü'l-'Arûziyye (philosophic work in encyclopedia style), Ahvâlü'n-Nefs (definition, creation, powers, immortality of the soul and its connection with the body), Lisânü'l-Arab (Arabic dictionary), el-Kânûnfi't-Tıbb (General issues of medicine science and drugs, Tashkent 1954-1961. Last Turkish translation: Prof. Dr. Esin Kahya, 1995-2003), el-Urcûze fi't-Tıbb (summary of the el-Kânûnfi't-Tıbb), Def'u 'l-Mazarri 7-Külliyye ani'l-Ebdâni'l-însâniyye /Tedârik ü Enva 'i'l-Hatâ'i'l-Vâkı'afi't'Tedbîr (philosophic, has not survived until today). Felsefî Kıssalar (Tashkent, 1963), Benmiy ve İbn-i Sinaning Sual Cevableri (Tashkent, 1950), Ziynet (Tashkent, 1992), Salaman ve İbsal (poems and stories. Tashkent, 1980), Şi'rler (Tashkent, 1965), Şi'rler ve Tıbbî Dastan (Tashkent, 1981). 

REFERENCE: O. N. Ergin / İbn Sînâ Bibliyografyası (1937, gen. 2. bs. 1956), George C. Anawati / Mü'eîlef-Ğlü İbn Sina (Kahire, 1950), Saîd-i Nefisi / Bibliographie des prinçipaux travaux européens sur Avicenna (Tahran, 1953), Yahya Mehdevî / Fihrist-i Nüshahâ-yı Musannefâtı İbn Sina (Tahran, 1954), M. Züheyr el-Bâbâ / Min Müellefâti İbn Sina (Halep, 1984), J. L. Janssens / An Annotated Bibliography on İbn Sina (1970-1989), M. Cunbur / "Türkiye'de 1983-1986 Yılları Arasında İbn Sina'ya Dair Yayınlar": İbn Sinâ (980-1030) Anma ve Tanıtma Toplantıları (1984-85, 1986,87), "Türkiye'de Cumhuriyet Döneminde Îbn Sinâ Hakkında Yazılar" / Îbn Sina Kongresi Tebliğleri (haz: Ali Haydar Bayat, 1984), İ. Möminov / Vidayuşiysya Misliteli Sredney Azii (Moskova, 1966), S. Mirzayev / Îbn Sinaning Şarkşunaslık İnstitüfide Mevcud Eserleri (Taşkent, 1955), S. Rahimov / Ebu Ali Îbn Sina Ta'lim ve Terbiye Hakkında (Taşkent, 1967), A. İrisov / Ebu Ali İbn Sina Hayatı ve İcadı (Taşkent, 1980), A. İrisov / İbn Sina Ma'rifetperver Edib (Taşkent, 1962), N. Kamilov / İbn Sina ve Dante (Taşkent, 1983), M. Asım / İbn Sina Kıssası (Taşkent, 1982), A. Kayımov / Ebu Reyhan Beruniy Ebu Ali İbn Sina (Taşkent, 1987), Büyük Türk Filozof ve Tıb Üstadı İbni Sina: Şahsiyeti ve Eserleri Hakkında Tetkikler (1937), GAL (c. 1, sayfa: 589-600), Suppl. (c. 1, sayfa: 812-816), İbn Sina Doğumunun Bininci Yılı Armağanı (ed: Aydın Sayılı, l984), TDEA (c. 4, sayfa: 320), TDVİA (c. 20, s. 319-358), Uluslararası İbni Sina Sempozyumu Bildirileri (haz: M. Cunbur-O. Doğan, 1984), D. Gutas / İbn Sinâ'nın Mirası (der: M. Cüneyt Kaya, 2004), TDOE –TDE Ansiklopedisi (c.5, 2005), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013). 

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