Hoca Sadeddin Efendi

Devlet Adamı, Hattat, Tarihçi, Şair

02 Ekim, 1599
Diğer İsimler
Hodja Sadeddin Efendi, Mehmed Sadeddin, Hoca Çelebi, Koca Hoca Efendi

Historian, calligrapher, poet and statesman (B. 1536, Istanbul - D. October 2nd, 1559, Istanbul). His real name was Mehmed Sadeddin. He was known with the title Hace-i Sultanî or with the names Hodja Çelebi or Koca Hodja Efendi. He was the son of İsfahanlı Hasan Çan who was the nedim (T.N. Conversation ffiend) of Yavuz Sultan Selim. He had his primary education from Karanlı Mehmet Efendi, who was the mudarris (hodja, T.N. lecturer) of Sahn-ı Seman, and from the other scientists of the time. After being lectured from Ebussuud Efendi, in 1555 he was appointed as a mudarris to Istanbul Murat Paşa Madrasah. In 1564, he was assigned to Bursa Yıldırım Madrasah as a mudarris with the Erbain degree. A year later he was promoted to Hariç degree. In May 1570 he obtained the degree of Bursa Sultan degree. He was appointed to Sahn as a mudarris in 1571 and in 1573 he was assigned as Prince Murad's teacher and went to Manisa. In Manisa, he gained the Prince's trust and respect by having taught him for eight years. After coming back to Istanbul with him, he was made the teacher of the sultan with the title of Hace-i Sultanî when Murad III came to the throne in 1574.

Sadeddin Efendi gained a very selective position in the palace during the sultanate of Murad III. He was among the powerful names in the state government like the pashas Şemsî Ahmed and Kara Oveys, and Sheikh Şüca Gazanfer Ağa and Canfedâ Hatun, who were known by their relation with the Sultan. To reinforce his position, he didn't hesitate to cooperate with the opponents of Sokullu Mehmet Pasha. The greatest impact of Hodja Çelebi in the matters regarding the foreign policy of the government was seen at the establishment of diplomatic relations with England and the signature of a trade agreement. The representatives and delegates sent to Istanbul by Queen Elizabeth since 1578 were always supported by Hodja Sadeddin while trying to establish relationship with Babıâli (T.N. the Sublime Porte) and the Palace. The first one of them, Harborne and the second one, Barton specified in their reports that Hodja Efendi provided them all kinds of conveniences.

England was trying to make a trade agreement with the Ottoman Empire, and on the other hand, it was trying to prevent cooperation between Spain, which she was in war with, and the Ottomans. According to Harborne, Hodja Sadeddin Efendi requested him to submit a petition regarding the matter and he presented it to Sultan Murad, III after correcting the letter. Thus, Hodja Sadeddin played a great role in the establishment of Turkish-British official relations, although he couldn't properly understand the true nature of the Mediterranean politics of the period, the scope and the importance of the relations with England.

The position of Sadeddin Efendi in the Palace and in the government wasn't shaken after the death of Murad III. He was the teacher of Mehmed, III who come to the throne after Murad, III (1595) and he was the first to declare his loyalty to him. Above all, as Molla Nasuh, who was the teacher of the new sultan when he was a prince, had died two days before the sultan came to the throne, Sadeddin Efendi continued to use the Hace-i Sultanî title. By getting the support of Valide Safiye Sultan, he tried to disgrace the Shaykh al-Islam Bostanzade Mehmed Efendi with whom he was in bad relations since before. Soon after, when the Sultan Mehmed III ordered the people to be appointed as viziers and scientist to interview with Hodja Sadeddin, his status became completely safe. Then, the grand viziers (prime ministers) who came into power successively like Koca Sinan and Damat İbrahim Pasha had to cooperate with him. Hodja Sadeddin Efendi, at the peak of his power, made the sultan Mehmed III go on a cruise to Austria personally and accompanied him, having provided positive services for him and he was effective in the Haçova victory.

At the same time, the news regarding the defeat of the Ottoman powers sent against the army under the control of Austrian Archduke Maximilian and the rebellious Erdel Voivode Barthory arrived. Then the important people of the government, who gathered in the consulting assembly at the Otağ-ı Hümayun proposed to turn back without encountering the enemy. Hodja Sadeddin stated that in case of directing to another direction, the enemy would follow and entrap them, furthermore having mentioned none of the Ottoman sultans turned away from war unless there was a really compulsory reason, and he argued that it was necessary to fight until being martyred. With the same persistence before the sultan, he convinced Mehmed III to meet the enemy and go to war.

Sadeddin Efendi was not content with this and he dealt with the layout of the army. Once they arrived in Haçova he was in the center of the army with the sultan and directed to war that continued for three days with the sultan and the grand vizier. On the second day of the war (October 26th, 1596) Ottoman lines were broken and the Habsburg forces moved until the treasure chests’ location and planted their flag. Mehmed III was at a loss after this danger just beside him. With the suggestion of the Grand Vizier İbrahim Pasha, he was making preparations to run from the battle field, but Hodja Sadeddin Efendi calmed the sultan by saying that he needed to stay or otherwise the army would dissolve and made him staying by clothing him with Hirka-i Saadet. The victory in Haçova increased the reputation and the impact of Hodja Sadeddin. However, this didn't last long. Day to day, Sadeddin Efendi's influence in the Palace diminished, and he was dismissed in 1597. In 1598, on the condition that he kept “Hace-i Sultanî” title, he was appointed as Shaykh al-Islam. He stayed at this post till his death; when he died, he was buried in Istanbul, Eyüp. The mausoleum of Hodja Sadeddin is in the yard of Darü’l Kurra across Eyüp Mosque, just beside Saçlı Abdülkadir Mescidi.

Sadeddin Efendi, a poet and calligrapher, was particularly known for being a historian. In his copyright work named “Tâcü’t-Tevârîh” , he told the incidents that happened until the end of his period by referring to the works of the historians before him, Aşıkpaşazade, İdris-i Bitlisî, Neşrî, Hadidî ve Ahmedî. He added “Selimnâme which included the information regarding the sultanate and life of Yavuz Sultan Selim, based on the things he had heard from his father Hasan Çan. “Until 1554, many annexes were written to Tâcü’t-Tevârîh. The whole work was translated into Italian, French and German, and some parts were translated into English, Magyar and Russian.


Tâcü’t-Tevârîh (Known also as ‘Hoca Târihi’, simplified by İsmet Parmaksızoğlu), Mirâtü’l-Edvâr ve Mirkaatü’l-Ahbâr (translation from Muslihiddin Larî’, the original is a Persian general history of the world), Risâletü’l-Kuşeyriye (translation), Behcetü’l-Esrâr (translation from Eş-Şettenûfî).

REFERENCE: Ahmet Refik / Âlimler ve Sanatkâr­lar (1924), İbrahim Alâeddin Gövsa / Türk Meşhurları (1946), Münir Aktepe / Hoca Sadeddîn Efendi’nin Tâcü’t-Tevârih’i ve Bunun Zeyli Hakkında (Türkiyat Mecmuası, sayı: 3, 1958), Hasan Çelebi / Tezkire (Haz: İbrahim Kutluk, 2 cilt, 1978-1981), F. Babinger / Osmanlı Tarih Yazarları ve Eserleri (1982), Şerafettin Turan / “Hoca Sâdeddin Efendi” (TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, c. 18, s. 196-198, 1998), Büyük Türk Klâsikleri (c. 4, s. 212-213, 2004), İhsan Işık / Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) – Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).



Devamını Gör