Davud-i Antakî

Eczacı, Matematik Bilgini, Astronom, Tıp Doktoru, Şair

Diğer İsimler
Dâvûd b.Ömer el Ekmeh ed-Darîr el- Antakî

Physician, pharmacist, astronomer, mathematician, poet (Born? Antakya – Death 1599, Mecca). His full name is Dâvûd b. Ömer el-Ekmeh ed-Darîr el-Antakî. Since he was born in Antakya he was known as Davûd-i Antakî and since he was blind from birth, he was given with epithets “Ekmeh” and “Darîr”; and finally because of his acute mind and deep knowledge he was called “Basîr” (one who has a good sight). His father Ömer Aga was a beneficent person and landlord of  Habib Neccâr village. 

Davûd was a disabled child who could not move until the age of seven. His nurse brought him every day to the guesthouse built by his father. Dâvûd who stayed here until nights with scholars coming by, learnt numerous things from them and memorized the Holy Koran in those years. Muhammed Şerif who was a Persian medicine scholar came to Antakya and not only gave him lectures in the guesthouse but also took care of his treatment and healed him. Antakî later studied logics and mathematics from the same scholar and learnt Persian. Upon the suggestion of his teacher he also learnt Greek.

Davud-i  Antakî owes his success at science to his education in the abovementioned guesthouse which was built by his father and which was a real scientific environment with its guests. Especially his father made great effort so that he could become a scholar and took care of him with compassion. He studied both Islamic and Physical Sciences. When he went from Antakya to Cairo, he had a say in various scientific fields. He started working here and became a master of physicians and pharmacists. His reputation spread all over the world. In the 16th century Islamic world, no physician and pharmacist reached his level. He made essential contributions to studies of scholars before him in medicine and pharmacy.

Antakî upon the departure of Mu­hammed Şerif from Antakya and the death of his father went on a trip. When he was in Damascus between 1568 and 69 he started writing his famous work “Tezkire-i Dâvûd”. Meanwhile he also started healing patients. He went to Cairo, taught at the Madrasah of Zâhiriyye and in the same time worked as a physician. After going to Mecca in 1599 he passed away, according to one version due to sickness and to another version due to poison.

Davudi Antakî gave the following warning about medical science and profession which became one of the major problems of nowadays and which should concern all physicians:

It is necessary to appreciate and respect this science extremely and to be modest towards its scholars. One should make effort to spread it. But there is an important issue; which is, not leaving this science to rascals, egoists and blackguards. People who are not studious, beneficient and idealistic should be kept away from this science. In case this is not done, not only immorality and corruption will come into being, but also death of numerous patients.

Davud-I Antâkî used herbs, animals and all kinds of chemical material in the field of pharmacy. He made great discoveries and it is stated that he was a sensitive personage. He was a valuable physician, pharmacist, astronomer, mathematician, and in the same time a thinker and a poet who possessed a remarkable general knowledge.

Antakî wrote numerous books and booklets about especially medicine and also kalâm, logics, philosophy, algebra and astronomy. His most famous work is “Tezkiret-ül-Elbabvel-Camialil-Ucub-il-Uccab” which is also known as “Tezkire-I Dâ­vûd” or “Tezkire-I Antakî”. In the foreword of this work the importance, necessity and study methods of medical science are explained. The first part is a general introduction to medicine, the second and third parts are about single and complex drugs (el-müfredât ve’l-mürekkebât). The fourth part contains information about the etiology and treatment methods of diseases due to their nature. The last part contains information on numerous fields such as astrology, astronomy, geometry and phylactery, aside from various issues related to medicine.

His work titled “Nüzhet-ül-Ezhan  fi Islah-il-Ebdan” consists of an introduction, seven chapters and a conclusion part. The first chapter is about natural incidents, the second about human anatomy, the third about etiology of diseases, the fourth about the particularities of the human external structure, the fifth about recommendations concerning health, the sixth about details of diseases and the seventh about bodily diseases.

His work “En-Nüzhet-ül Mübehhece  fi Teşhis-il-Ezhanve Ta’dil-il-Emzice”is written on diagnostics and treatment methods of internal and external diseases. Risalefil-Fasdivel-Hacamat concerns bloodletting and phlebotomy.

His work titled Tezyinul-esvâk bi-taişîli Eşvâki'l-uş­şak is a review on love which takes the famous Koran interpreter scholar Bikâî's work Eşvâku'l-Uşşâk as basis and contains his poetry.


Tezkiret-ül-Elbabvel-Camialil-Ucub-il-Uccab, Risalefil-Fasdivel-Hacamat, Nüzhet-ül-Ezhan fi Islah-il-Ebdan, En-Nüzhet-ülMübehhece  fi Teşhis-il-Ezhanve Ta’dil-il-Emzice, Tezyinul-esvâk bi-taişîliEşvâki'l-uş­şak, Mecma'u'l-fevâ’id-i'l-bedeniyye, Risâlemuhtasarafi'l-cebr, Unmûzec-i ilmi'1-eflâk, Risâlefi't-tayrve'l-ukâb, Risâlefi'l-heye, el-Keşfani'l-müş- kilât, Nazm-ıKânûnçek (Interpretation written by him to Avicenna’s el-Kânûn), Kifâ- yâtü'l-muhtâc fi cilmi‘l- Cilâc, Gaye- tü'l-merâmfi'l-manpkve'l-kelâm, El­tiyefi't-Tıb.

    KAYNAKÇA: Dr. Adnan Adıvar / Osmanlı Türk­lerinde İlim (s. 117-119, 1943), Bedi N. Şehsuvaroğlu / Ec­zacılık Tarihi Dersleri (s. 159, 1970), Küçük Türk İslâm Ansiklo­pedisi, (s. 125-126, 1978), Ayşegül Demirhan Erdemir / Kısa Tıp Tarihi (s. Bursa 1982) - “Dâvûd b. Ömer el-Ekmeh ed-Darîr el-Antâkî” (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, c. 9, s. 26-27, 1992), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013). 



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