El Harezmî (Muhammed B. Musa)

Matematik Bilgini

Diğer İsimler
El Harizmî, Alkarismi, Algoritmi, Algorism, Harezmî, Muhammed bin Musa el Harizmî

Mathematician (B. 795 - D. 850). At the end of 8th century, in 795 he was born in Harizm (south to Aral Sea, the city known as Hive today). In Latin resources his name is Alkarismi, Algoritmi, Algorismi or Algorism. The famous scientist Prof. Mehmet Fatih Gökmen preferred to call him “Harezmi” and again other scientists like Prof. Hamit Dilgan preferred to talk about him by making his name more Turkish as “Harzemli”. Due to the name resemblance, most of the time he was confused with Ebû Ca’fer Muhammed b. Mûsâ of Benî Mûsâ brothers and with Ebû Abdullah Muhammed b. Ahmed el-Hârizmî, the author of Mefâtîhu’l-Ulûm.

Muhammed bin Musa el Harizmî worked at the library of Beytü’l-Hikme of which he was one of the important members during the Caliph Me’mûn’s period (813-833). From his works that reached today, it is understood that he wrote his books in that period and presented them to the Caliph Me’mûn’a . As per the information from Taberî, Hârizmî lived during the time of the Caliph Vâsik and he was in his service. He was with him even when he died (232/847). Rumor has it that, the caliph called the famous astrologers including Hârizmî when he was about to die; and they told the caliph that he would live for another fifty years according to the astrological calculations they had made, but he died ten days later. It is considered that Hârizmî died in 850, 17 years later after the Caliph Me’mun. Some of the manuscripts from his works are at Istanbul Süleymaniye Library.


Zîcü’s-Sind-Hind [Zîcü’l-Hârizmî] (It is based on a book brought to Baghdad by the Indian committee during the time of the Caliph Mansûr named Brahma-gupta Sidharta or on another book with the same name. Hârizmî added new information to the book with his inventions. It was the first Islamic astronomy book), Kitâbü’l-Muhtaşar fî hisâbi’l-cebr ve’l-mukâbele (The first math book that had the “algebra" word in its name compiled methodically. The algebra developed by Hârizmî was the algebra limited to second-order equation above all. Besides, no negative numbers were used, so the determination of the equation was only done by finding the positive roots. Based on Harizmî’yi- İbn-i Haldun, Kâtip Çelebi was shown as the first author to write a book on Algebra with Keşf-üz-Zünun), Kitâbü'l-Hisâbi'l-Hindî (The Indian numbers and the decimal number system was introduced to the Islamic world with this book of Hârizmî),  Kitâbü'İ-Cem ve'l-Tetrîk (This book didn’t reach today, but it is understood from the reference made by Abdülkâdir b.Tâhir el-Bağdâdî et-Tekmile fi'l-hisâb in his book that this book was about calculation with hands), Kitâbü'l-Coğrafya [Kitâbü Şûre-ti'l Arz] (This book of Hârizmî, who was among the first Islamic geographers, gives the coordinates of the cities and some particular regions. This co-ordination of Hârizmî was a sample for the studies of the Islamic geographers after him), Risâle fi'stihrâci târîhi'l-Yehûd (It was a study in which the calendar used by the Hebrews was discussed within the framework of practical astronomy understanding. The book was printed with different booklets on astronomy), Kitâbü't-Târîh (This book couldn't reach today; however from the references of many Islamic historians after him, it is understood that like his contemporary Ebû Ma'şer el-Belhî, Hârizmî also tried to establish a certain relation between the astrological rules), Kitâbü 'Ameli'l-usturlâb and Kitâbü l-Amel bi'l-usturlâb (None of them reached today. Only in a manuscript correlated to Fergânî, there is a part describing how Hârizmî solved astronomy problems by using astrolabe method), Amelü's-sâ a fî basîti'r-Ruhâme (The book, found in the classic sources, is about making a sundial on a marble surface), Zarâ'if min ameli Muhammed b. Mûsâ el-Hârizmî fî ma'rife-ti'ssemt bi'l'usturlâb (A copy of this book, which is not mentioned in classic sources, reached today. This is most probably a part of an unknown book of Hârizmî that didn’t reach today).

REFERENCE: Zeki Velidi Togan / Horezm Kültürü Vesikaları I: Horezmce Tercümeli Mukaddimat al-adab (1951), İbrahim Kafesoğlu / Harzemşahlar Devleti Tari­hi (1956), Prof. Dr. Hamit Dilgan / Muhammed İbn Musa el- Harzemi (1957), Mehmet Altay Köymen / Büyük Sel­çuklu İmparatorluğu Tarihi: İkinci İmparator­luk Devri (1984), İsmail Aka / Ti­mur ve Devleti (1991), Ömer Akın - Melek Dosay / Beş Büyük Cebir Bilgini (1994),  İhsan Fazlıoğlu / "Cebir" (TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, c. 7, s. 195-201, 1993) -  “Harizmî” (TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, c.16, s. 224-227, 1997), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013). 


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