Scientist,
statesman, marshal (B. 1832, Vidin – D.

Hüseyin
Tevfik Pasha was one of the members of the historical society named Rhode
Island Historical Society. He submitted to one of the scientific meetings of this society a
manifesto that was given as "*Some Facts on Mohammedanism*" in English. It is understood by
this manifesto that Pasha also gave answers to the writings against Turks and Islam,
in which Turks were accused of marrying more than one woman and of safeguarding
the slavery, and which were on the local newspaper Providence Daily Journal copy dated February 7, 1878.

Tevfik
Pasha was also one of the members of Mathematical Society of France. It was
stated in the 16th volume of the bulletins that were published by this society
that “General, Aide-de-camp of Sultan, Artillery Lieutenant General” Vidinli Hüseyin
Tevfik Pasha was one of the two Turks among the members, and the other one was
a person named İbrahim Efendi who became a member in the same year.

The first
duty of Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha, who was on duty abroad several times, in America lasted
seven years from 1872-73 to 1878-79 with interruptions. He took on a highly
important task in this period that will be the basis of his appointment to

After he came back to
his homeland, he was appointed as the Head of Assembly of Tophane, as Minister
of Finance in 1880, after several months he was appointed as the Member of
Commission of Public Works, and as Minister Plenipotentiary to

Linear Algebra that was written in English is the most
famous work of Vidinli Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha, who was known as an outspoken, direct,
and honest person and who was amongst the most famous mathematicians of his period.
This work, one copy of which was found by Professor of geological engineer A.
M. Celal Şengör in 1985 in *Cebr-i Hattî*".
Researches about the book and its writer were done by Prof. Dr. Kâzım Çeçen (D.
1997). According to these researches, the copy that was found by Şengör in *Linear Algebra*" were published
together again by the efforts of Rector İlhan Kayan. By making use of the most
basic official resources and more importantly by completely writing the
memories of Salih Zeki about Vidinli, which were published in Muallim Mecmuası
(T.N Journal of the Teachers), Professor Çeçen wrote a beneficial prologue that
this prologue is considered as the most fundamental review about Vidinli
Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha by the science communities.

In
his work "*Linear Algebra*", Vidinli
Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha tried to build a “hyper complex” number system on real
number object, which shares the similar characteristics with complex number
object and also constitutes of three dimensional algebra. His desire to repeat
the splendid application in the three dimensional Euclidean geometry of “pure
quaternion”s which are a three dimensional vector subspace of “quaternion”s
that belong to a four dimensional algebra is behind this attempt.

Also, our yet another
worldwide known mathematician Cahit Arf wrote a review about “Linear Algebra”.

** HIS WORKS:**

*Zeyli
Usulü Cebir, Cebr-i Âlâ, Makine, Cebr-i Hattî *(1882, extended 2^{nd}
edition in 1892; Linear Algebra)*, Memâlik-i Osmaniye ve İslâmiye* (Translation of his speech that he
gave in French language in a historical society while he was in *Hesab-ı
Müsenna* (Translation of his work that was published in English).

REFERENCE: Mithat Cemal Kuntay / Namık Kemal (1940),**
**İbrahim Alâeddin Gövsa / Türk Meşhurları (1946), İbnülemin Mahmut Kemal İnal /
Osmanlı Devrinde Son Sadrazamlar (1940-53) (1951),** **Prof. Dr.** **Kâzım
Çeçen / Hüseyin Tevfik Paşa
ve "Linear Algebra" (yay. haz. 1988), Cem Saraç, “Salih
Zeki Bey’e göre Vidinli Hüseyin Tevfik Paşa” (Bilim Tarihi, 1992, sayı: 9,
3-10), TBE Edebiyatçılar Ansiklopedisi
(1994),** **Cem Tezer / “Vidinli
Hüseyin Tevfik Paşa” (TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, c.40, 2011), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Devlet Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri
Ansiklopedisi, c. 1, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013) - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür
Adamları Ansiklopedisi (C. 12, 2017).