Economist. He completed his PhD in the field of economic history at California University. He gave lectures at the Middle East Technical University until 1982. He is still working as an academician at Suny-Binghampton University and İstanbul University.
Definition of a Peripheral Economy, State and Class in Turkey, İstanbul between the Global and the Local, Osmanlı'da Toprak Mülkiyeti ve Ticari Tarım (Land Ownership and Mercantile Agriculture in the Ottomans, with Faruk Tabak, translated by Zeynep Altok, 1998), İstanbul-Küresel ile Yerel Arasında (İstanbul Between the Global and the Local, compiled, 2000).