Divan Şairi

Diğer İsimler
Mehmed bin Süleyman (asıl adı). Fuzuli

Poet (b. 1495, Hille / Bağdat / Iraq – d. 1556, Karbala). His real name was Mehmed. It is rumored that he chose the pen name "Fuzulî" (Useless) because it is almost impossible for others to select it as a name. On the other hand, he pointed out that this word was the plural form of “fazl”, which means virtue. Very little information about his life and education is available; however, he had the title “Molla” (Mullah) which indicates that he had deep Islamic education. In 1508, he presented his mesnevi* Beng ü Bade (Wine of Life) to Şah İsmail, who had just conquered Baghdad. For some time, he lived under the protection of İbrahim Khan, the Safawi governor in Baghdad. After İbrahim Khan's death (1527), he could not find another protector, and thus came to Hille.

When Sultan Süleyman the Magnificient conquered Baghdad (1534), Fuzulî presented his works (kasides*) to the Sultan and his Paşas. However, when the wage given to him was ceased, he wrote his famous Şikâyetnâme (Complaints) to Nişancı Celâlzâde Mustafa Çelebi. He spent all life in Hille, Baghdad, Najaf, and Karbala. He died by a epidemic of black death in 1566. It has been speculated the tomb across the grave of Esteemed Hüseyin in Karbala, belongs to him. He lived in poverty all his life.

Though Fuzulî wrote in Azerbaijani accent, he became one of the most prominent names of Turkish literature with his powerful lyric poems, and influenced many other succeeding poets. He spoke Arabian, Persian and Turkish and knew well about the literature of these languages. As a poet of deep suffering, Fuzuli's masterpiece is Leyla ve Mecnun (Leyla and Mecnun), a mesnevi* of four thousand couplets. A huge number of analysis articles published on this mesnevi* and on his other works. He was slightly influenced by the Azerbaijani poet of the 15th century, Habîbî; Ali Şîr Nevaî, the Chağatay poet; Hâfız, Nizâmî-i Gencevî and Câmî, the Persian poets. He admitted that he benefited from Nizami in Leyla ve Mecnun (Leyla and Mecnun). In general, his authentic and high qualified style marked his entire poetry and it is difficult to trace such influences. He was very well at finding and using upkeeps.


Türkçe Divan* (Divan* in Turkish, litograph, 1951; edited by Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, 1961), Farsça Divan* (Divan* in Persian, edited by Hasibe Mazıoğlu, 1962), Arapça Divan* (Divan* in Arabian, manuscript copy is in Petersburg), Hadikatü's-Süeda (Garden of Blissful People, about the Karbala event, 1809; edited by Selahattin Güngör, 1955), Beng ü Bâde (Wine of Life, mesnevi* in Persian, 500 couplets, an allegoric work about a dispute between wine and opium, scientific edition by Kemal Edip Kürkçüoğlu, 1956), Heft Cem (Sum of Seven; this work is also known as Sakiname -Book of Wine-seller- and is composed of seven parts, where the poet discusses with a musical instrument), Rind ü Zâhid (Fine Aesthetic, proses in Persian, translated by Selim Efendi, 1868), Hüsn ü Aşk (Beauty and Love; this work is also known as Sıhhat u Maraz -Health and Illness-. The original edition is in Persian and was translated in 1856. Latest edition by Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, 1940), Şikâyetnâme (Book of Complaints), Tercüme-i Hadis-i* Erbain (Translation of Forty Verses of Hadiths), Risalet-i Muamma Matlaü'l İtikâd (A Booklet on the Celestial Issues of Faith, about the study of the Holy Koran in accordance with the Shiah sect, edited by Esad Coşan 2003), Enisü'l-Kalb (Friend of Heart, edited by Cafer Erkılıç, 1944, kaside* in Persian), Türkçe Mektupları (Letters in Turkish, edited by Abdülkadir Karahan, 1948).

REFERENCE: M. Fuat Köprülü / Fuzulî (1934), Tahir Olgun / Fuzulî ’ye Dair (1936), Selim Refik Refioğlu / Fuzulî (Edebiyat Fakültesi Doktora Tezi, 1948), Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı / Fuzulî Divanı (1948), Beşir Ayvazoğlu / Fuzulî Kitabı (1966), Cemil Yener / Fuzulî’nin Dünyası (1966), Bursalı Mehmet Tahir / Osmanlı Müellifleri I (1972), Halûk İpekten / Fuzulî Hayatı Edebi Kişiliği ve Bazı Şiirlerinin Açıklamaları (1973), Hasibe Mazıoğlu / Fuzulî ve Türkçe Divanı’ndan Seçmeler (1986), İhsan Işık / Yazarlar Sözlüğü (1990, 1998) - Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi (2001, 2004) – Encyclopedia of Turkish Authors (2005) - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) – Ünlü Edebiyatçılar (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 4, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013), Mehmet Kahraman / Leyla ve Mecnun Romanı (2000). 



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