Bedreddin Mardinî

Matematik Bilgini, Astronom

19 Ekim, 1423
Diğer İsimler
Sıbtu’l-Mardînî, Bedreddin Muhammed b. Muhammed b. Ahmed el-Mardinî

Mathematician and astronomer. (B. 19 October 1423, Damascus – D. 1506, Cairo). His full name is Bedreddin Muhammed b. Muhammed b. Ahmed el-Mardinî and he is originally member of a family from Mardin. His mother’s father was Cemâleddin el-Mardînî (Death 809/1406) who was known with his studies in the field of  “ilm-i mîkât” (T.N. Islamic science to determine prayer times). Therefore Bedreddin was known as “Sıbtu’l-Mardînî” (Grandchild of Mardini). He was raised as a Koran reciter by his father who was an experienced musician and member of Talbhane in Damascus since his voice was beautiful. For this, he benefited from many recitatives. After his education he served as a muezzin in the Omayyad Mosque in Damascus. He took lectures from the Shafi scholars Nureddin el-Bilbisî, Celâleddin el-Mahallî and Sâlih b. Ömer el-Bulkinî and from the astronomer İbn Şatır

In the scientific environment during the Mamelukes he completed his studies of mathematics and astronomy. He became known as a mathematician and astronomer in a short time. Classical sources stated that el-Hasib (Calculator) and el-Muvakkıt (Someone who determines the time) were among his nicknames.

Later he studied fiqh (Islamic law) with Alâeddin el-Kalkaşendî and İbn Hacer, ferâiz (inheritance law) and hadith (Words of the Holy Porphet) with el- Askalânîden and  calculation with İbnü’l-Mecd. Since he contributed to studies of his calculation teacher, Şinşevrî told about him “He is a summary of İbnü’l-Mecd”. Many times he went to Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem and twice to Damascus and Hama to take lectures from scholars there. He transferred the knowledge accumulation he obtained from İbn Şatır and Halili to numerous students including Tayboğaoğlu İbn Mecdi, a great mathematician and astronomer of Mamelukes. Bedreddin was defined as a quite religious and moral person in classical sources. He passed away in Damascus.

Mardinî rather is known with his works concerning astronomic tools such as “universal quadrant” and prayer times’ table he prepared. Many works of him in manuscript libraries and some catalogues are appropriated to his grandson Sıbtu’l-Mardini. He wrote many works in various fields such as fiqh (Islamic law), ferâiz and language, but was rather known as a mathematician and astronomer. He determined prayer times in Cairo’s Ezher Mosque for long years. He taught in many places such as Ezher Mosque and Tolunoğlu Mosque. He raised numerous students and some of them became famous in their fields. One of the greatest services made to Islamic mathematics-astronomy science by Sıbtu’l Mardini who died in Cairo is his interpretation of “Keşfü'l-haktfik fî hisâbi'd-deıec ve'd-dekâ’ik” which is an introductory book of “Hesâb-ı Sitinî” of his teacher İbnü’l-Mecdi under the title “Rekâ’ikü’l-fya- ka’ik fî hisâbi’d-derec ve’d-dekâik” which would later be used as an essential source for this calculation method almost in the whole Islamic World.

Sıbtu’l-Mardinî’s line is a continuation of an understanding of mathematical sciences which is purified from the philosophical content of Shafi fiqh tradition which started with Gazzali. This tradition nourished from İbnü’l-Ben-nâ school in Northern Africa, reached its summit with İbnü’l- Hâim in Egypt, continued with İbnü’l-Mecdî and ripened with Mardinî. It did not attach importance to a mathematical-astronomical science in terms of “philosophizing”, but rather remained within the system of functional symbols applied to concrete objects. Thus the Egyptian Mathematics School did not research basic elements of numbers or astronomic phenomena but was contented with descriptions of their numerical or geometrical relationships.

The decisive characteristic of Sıbtu’l- Mardini’s attitude is that he was not interested in Indian mathematics and limited calculation with “hisâb-ı hevâî” thus remaining loyal to fiqh tradition completely. It is stated in the sources that he wrote more than 200 works, large and small.


İrşâdü’t-tullâb ilâ Vesîleti’l-hisâb, Keşfü’l-ğavâmiz fî cilmi’I-fe- râ’iz, Tuhfetü’l-ahbâb ti cilmi’l-h sâb, et-Tuhietü’l-Mârdîniyye fî şerhi’l- Yâsemîniyye, el-Kavlü’l-mudî fî şer- hi’l-Muknic (îzâhu’l-meknûrı, II, 251), er-Risâletü '1-fethiyye fi'l-acmâ- li'l-ceybiyye, Şerhu’r-Rahbiyy e ti cilmi’l- ferâ’iz (Şerhu’l-manzûmeti’r-Rahbiyye), Laktü’l-cevâhir ti tahdî di’l-hutût ve’d-devâ’ir, Kifâyetü’l-könûn fi’l-camel bi’r-rubH’ş-şimâlî el-maktif, Şerhu’1-fuşûli’l-mü- himme ti mevârişi’l-ümme, Hidâyetü’l-‘âmil (sâ’il) fi’l-camel bi’r- rubci’l-kâmil.  

  KAYNAKÇA: Cevat İzgi / Osmanlı Medreselerinde İlim (c. I, , s. 438-439, 442; İstanbul 1997), İhsan Fazlıoğlu / “Mardinî, Cemaleddin” (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi, c. 28, s. 52, 2003) - “Sıbtu’l-Mardînî” (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, c. 37, s. 90, 91, 2009), B. A. Rosenfeld - Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu / Mathematicians, Astro­nomers and Others Scholars of Islamic Civilisa­tion and Their Works (s. 293-298, 2003), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013). 


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