Statesman, Ottoman Grand Vizier (B. ? – D. March 2nd, 1688, Istanbul). He was one of the slaves of the Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed Pasha and he was of Croatian or Abkhazian origin. He was also known with his epithets “Köprülü Damadı” or “Hacı”. It is stated that he was a student of Seyyid Nesib Yusuf Dede, one of the sheikhs of Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi. Siyavuş Ağa, who was known by his skill in horsemanship and archery and his prowess in the battles, was in the service of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha for a while and married his daughter Ayşe Hanım. Upon the death of the Grand Vizier in 1661, he became the chamberlain of his eldest son Sadrazam Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha. He participated in Nove Zamky, Crete and Kamianets expeditions, which were made as of the prime ministry of Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (1663).
It appears that Hacı Siyavuş Pasha served as “Mirâhur-i Sanî” during the 1678 Chyhyryn expedition of Merzifonlu Mustafa Pasha and upon grand vizier’s suggestion he left this duty and joined the expedition. In 1681, he served as the silahtar (T.N. armor master) aga in the army. Upon the removal and execution of Merzifonlu Mustafa Pasha on December 14th, 1683, an elimination movement began against the Köprülü family and thus on January 4th, 1684, in Edirne, Siyavuş Pasha got dismissed from his duty without his fief being taken. However, he became the cavalry aga on May 31st, 1684 (31st July) and Diyarbakır Governor along with the viziership. Malatya and Antep districts were granted to him as fief and he was sent to the commander-in-chief of Hungary, Bekri Mustafa Pasha.
Siyavuş Pasha acquired fame with his outstanding courage in the battles in front of the besieged Buda Castle. Although he lost two thirds of the reinforcement forces that he led, he managed to get around 1000 soldiers into the besieged Buda Castle. After this event, he was appointed to Bosnia Governorship first and then to Aleppo governorship (December 13th, 1686). The Siklos Battle of August 12th, 1687, in which the Grand Vizier San Süleyman Pasha was routed while displacing the army, marked the beginning of an era of uprisings and conflicts, after which Siyavuş Pasha became the grand vizier. Siyavuş Pasha had also participated in the Battle of Mohacs. The soldiers, who were uneasy with Süleyman Pasha’s new arrangements and salary inspection in the army, rioted and on the next day they chose Aleppo Governor Siyavuş Pasha as the lieutenant of the army by saying “Old man is the vizier.” Mehmed IV, who heard of this news, immediately made Siyavuş Pasha the supreme military commander.
Siyavuş Pasha was appointed as the grand vizier on September 23rd, 1687, and it was guaranteed that all his requests would be met. While the rioters eliminated his dissidents in the army, the former grand vizier and lieutenant were executed. Despite all the attempts of Mehmed IV, who appointed Köprülüzade Fazıl Mustafa Pasha, the brother-in-law of grand vizier, as the second vizier and acting grand vizier (October 7th, 1687) as a measure against the rioters, the determination of the army did not change. The army, which was at odds with the sultan and which marched on Istanbul, insisted on the dethronement of the sultan. As a result of the meeting that was led by Siyavuş Pasha and Köprülüzade Mustafa in Haghia Sophia Mosque, Mehmed IV was dethroned and Süleyman II was enthroned in his place (November 8th, 1687).
Siyavuş Pasha, who was under the dominance of the second vizier Köprülüzade Mustafa Pasha, was imbued with eliminating the extortionists somehow. Upon this he went into action together with Harputlu Süleyman Aga, whom he appointed as the janissary aga. However, rioters besieged Siyavuş Pasha’s palace (March 1) under the command of Hacı Ali, who was just recently promoted as an aga, and demanded him to hand in the grand viziership seal. Siyavuş Pasha, who handed in the seal to the Shayk al-Islam, started to defend his palace with fifty men. However, he lost his life in the battle that lasted until the dawn prayer (March 2nd, 1688). His son Hüseyin Pasha was also killed in the skirmish. Tortures performed on Sadrazam Siyavuş Pasha’s body and on the daughter, wife and other harem members of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha and plundering of the palace were described as shameful events by the historians.
In the period when Siyavuş Pasha held the highest positions in the government starting from his seraskier position and continuing through the three times when he was appointed as the grand vizier, the Ottoman Empire failed against his enemies, Austria, Poland Venice, in terms of military; important castles and forts such as Osek, Eger, Varadin, Lipova, Szigetvar and Belgrade were lost.
Siyavuş Pasha Mausoleum is on Eyüp Camii Kebir Street and across Sokullu Mehmed Pasha Mausoleum. Mir-i miran Mehmed Pasha Mausoleum is ahead of its right and Shayk al-Islam Uryani-Zade Ahmed Esad Efendi’s mausoleum is in the same courtyard on the left. A district in Istanbul was named after Siyavuş Pasha, who had a big madrasah built in Istanbul and other charities elsewhere in the name of his wife Fatma Sultan.