Diğer İsimler

Mahmud (asıl adı), Mirim Çelebi

Mathematician
and astronomer (B.?,

Having initially worked in
Madrasahs at Gelibolu,

Also qualified in the
fields of history and literature, Mîrim Çelebi followed the *Risâle fi’I-Hâle *and *Kavs-i
Kuzah *in optics, he adopted the synthesis, which İbnü'l-Heysem practiced in
mathematics and natural sciences, as his scientific method. This clearly
shows that he partially abandoned both Kadızâde's view of pure
mathematical-geometrical way and Ali Kuşçu's theological mathematics.

Mîrim Çelebi followed all
of the different scientific schools in classical Islamic culture; and as can be
understood from his works, he studied different physicists, mathematicians and
kalam masters (people who try to justify the existence of Allah with proofs),
and consulted the works of İbnü'l-Heysem and Kemâleddin el-Fârisî as well as Avicenna
and Fahreddin er-Râzî in positive or negative aspects while not hesitating to
put his own views and theories forth, thus contributing to the technical
details of mathematical sciences.

He gained his
fame mainly in astronomy, which in turn shaped his scientific activity. *"Düstur
el-Amel ve Tashih el-Cedvel" *(Law of Operation and
Correction of Table, 1498), for example, was written to expound *Ulugh Beg
Zici. *The article he wrote for Ali Kuşçu's "*Fethiye*" was
also an expounding astronomy work. In the same way, though an
astrological work, "*el-Makâsid*" is also seen as related to the
field of astronomy since astrology and astronomy are relatively close branches.
He did not only work on astronomy, but also worked on other topics besides
astronomy, thus having demonstrated the general trend of the Ottoman scientists
as showing interest in almost all sciences instead of focusing on just one of
them. In this aspect, another field he was interested in was optics, which can
be seen by the tractates he wrote.

His tractate
named "*fi’I-Hâle* *ve* *Kavs-i
Kuzah*" may seem to have been written on how sky phenomenons such as
rainbows and haloes, formed, but when analyzed, the work was a general book on
optics. At the beginning of the book, some information on optics were given,
and pursuant to the arrangement of traditional books on optics, the rest was
divided into three main sections: First, direct vision, then reflection and refraction,
and lastly colors, rainbows and haloes. The tractate
shows that Mîrim Çelebi was interested in optics, and that he had sufficient
knowledge on optics to issue such a tractate. Therefore, he
must have researched many long and short treatises, and understood the
standards of knowledge on optics of his age. This is also
important in that it proves that Mîrim Çelebi approached optics with a
scientific concern.

Though his main works that
survived till today are mostly on astronomy, astrology and optics, since he was
a good mathematician, he always handled his problems with detailed mathematical
analysis. For example,
when he analyzed a part of Kadızâde's "*Şerhu’l-Mülahhaş fÎ İlmi’l-Hey’e*",
which deals with “tedâris”, the issue of the highest mountain's proportional
rate to the radius of Earth, he solved this problem using mathematics. His work called "*Düstûrü’l-‘amel ve
taşhî-hu’I-cedvel*" was the coomentary on the *“Zîc-i Uluğ Bey*"
in Persian. In this treatise, which
he completed in 1499 by the orders of Bayezid II, he benefited from Kâşi's
"*Zîc-i Hâkanî*" and Ali Kuşçu's "*Zîc-i Uluğ Bey Şerhi”*
to calculate the sinus of a one-degree arc and showed five different ways to
solve this problem with examples in an informative language. He was also
particularly interested in trigonometric expressions and came up with original
conclusions. His works in astronomy are
voluminous tractates called *“Rub’u'l-Müceyyeb*", *“Rub’u’ş-**Şikâzî”*" and *“Zerkâle*" that dealt with calendars, determining
qibla and many other problems. He
also wrote on astrology like his "*el-Makösıd fi'l-ihtiyârât*"
to follow the orientation of his contemporary scientists. Besides that, he had a
work called "*Münteyü'ş-Şayyaâdîn fi'l-Âv.*"

**MAIN**** WORKS**:

*Düstûrü'l-'Amel
ve Tashîhu'l-cedvel *(Persian expounding of *Zîc-i Uluğ Bey*), *Şerhu'l-Fethiyye
İî ilmi'l-hey'e *(expounding of Ali Kuşçu's important work *er-Risâletü'l-Fethiyye*),
*Risale fi'l-Hâle ve Kavs-i Kuzah *(deals with visual phenomenon and its
conditions, light, propagation and refraction of light,
colors, formation of rainbows and haloes, and their optical qualities). Hüseyin Gazi
Topdemir commented on this tractate in one of his articles.

REFERENCE: İbrahim Alaeddin Gövsa / “Mîrim Çelebi, Mahmut
Efendi” (Türk Meşhurları, 1946), Salih Zeki
/ Âsâr-i Bâkiye I (s. 199-200, 1329), A.
Adnan Adıvar / Osmanlı Türklerinde İlim (Haz. Aykut
Kazancıgil - Sevim Tekeli, s. 61-63, 1982), Ekmeleddin
İnsanoğlu / Osmanlı Astronomi Literatürü Tarihi (s. 33-34, 90-101, 1997), Aydın Sayılı / “Bir İlim Adamımızın Adı Üzerine” (II, s. 547-553,
TTK Bildiriler VII, 1970), YYO
Ansiklopedisi (II, s. 215-216; 1999), İhsan
Fazlıoğlu / “Mîrim Çelebi” (TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi (c. 30, 2005), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri
Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).