Mathematician and astronomer (B. ?,
Ferganî obtained his initial knowledge in
Fergânî studied in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, geography and mechanics. Among them, he focused more on astronomy. In his scientific studies, he made empirical examinations and researches; he studied on the movements of the celestial bodies. He was among the first criticizers of the Ptolemaiosian astronomy, which did not comply with the principles of Koran and not rational. He proved that the celestial bodies were not irrational spiritual objects but rather rational, solid, homo-synthetic objects with circular motions. He investigated the volumes and sizes of the universe and the planets and their distances. His calculations were accepted as invariant measures in the astronomy of the West until Copernicus and used for centuries.
On the other hand, according to İbn Ebû Usaybia, Fergânî was not successful enough compared to his knowledge and he couldn’t conclude anything he started. But at this point, it can be said that Fergânî was not originally an engineer and that’s why he was unsuccessful in putting his theoretical knowledge into practice.
which caused Fergânî, the big
astronomy and mathematics scientist grown in the 9th century and determined the
ecliptic slope for the first time, to gain fame in the Western world more than in the Islamic
world is “Cevâmi’u ilmi’n – nücûm” and “Usûlü’l-harekâti’s-semâviyye”. The manuscript copies of this work are
found in the library of
In various sections of “Cevâmi”, different topics such as the Arabic, Syrian, Roman, Iranian and Egyptian calendars; world’s position in the space and its movements, ecliptic slope; famous countries and cities; earth measurements; the positions and movements of the sun, moon, stars and the planets; states of the stars and the moon; phases of the moon; solar and lunar eclipse were addressed. “Cevâmi”, documents in detail the Ptolemaeus’s astronomy, what was completely descriptive and out of mathematics, and possesses a good systematic. However there were some numerical value mismatches in the first editions of its translations in the West.
Another work of Fergânî is “el-Kâmil fi şan’a-ti’l-usturlâb”. It is about the geometry, star calculations, astrolabe and mathematical theories. There are different manuscript copies of this work...
Although the date of death of Fergânî is not known exactly, he is estimated to have died in 861 or a few years later.
Usul el-İlm el-Nücum (It is a work on the stars. Other names used are: El-Medhal fi el-Mejisti, El-Medhal ila İlm el-Heyet el-Eflak, Kitab el-Füsul el-Selasin), İlelü Zici’l-Hârizmî (In this book not existing now, it is known that Fergânî had explained Hârizmî’s calculations. It is said that Bîrûnî had benefited from this work.), Cedvelü’l-Ferğan’î, “Amelü’l-ruhâmât, İlmü’l-heye, El-Kamil fi el-Usturlab (About astrolabe manufacture. Also known as Fi Sanat el-Usturlab).
REFERENCE: Mehmet Tahir Bursalı / Türklerden Yetişen Nücûm Heyet ve Riyaziye Ulemâsı (1897, s. 42), Prof. Dr. W. Barthold / İslâm Medeniyeti Tarihi (çev. M. Fuat Köprülü, 1940), Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi (c.12, 1995), Henry Corbin / The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy, (North Atlantic Books 1998), Sir Patrick Moore / The Data Book of Astronomy (2000), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).