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Mehmet Fuat Köprülü - Biyografya

Mehmet Fuat Köprülü

Edebiyat Tarihçisi, Devlet Adamı, Siyasetçi

Ölüm
28 Haziran, 1966
Eğitim
Istanbul Faculty of Law

Literature historian, politician and statesman (B. 1890, Istanbul - D. 28th June1966, Istanbul). His father was İsmail Faiz Bey who came from the famous race of the vizier family Köprülüler and his mother was Hatice Hanım, the daughter of Arif Hikmet Efendi from the ulama of İslimiye. After he went to the Ayasofya Merkez Rüştiyesi (Secondary School) and to the Mercan İdadisi (High School), he attended the Istanbul Faculty of Law (1907-09), however he couldn’t finish it. In these years, he took private lessons of French and he was closely interested in philosophy and history. He wrote writings concerning the conception of thought and literature of the West. After 1910, he worked as a Turkish language and literature teacher in the high schools of Istanbul. He instructed Turkish Literature in the Faculty of Letters of İÜ, Religions History in the Faculty of Religious Studies, Political History in the Mülkiye School and Civilization History in the Sanayi-i Nefise School (Fine Arts Academy). He was appointed as a professor of Turkish Literature History when he was only twenty three years old (1913). He became the Dean of the Faculty of Letters (1923) after the university reform. He was appointed as the Under-secretariat of the Board of Education in 1924. Besides, he worked as a history instructor in the Faculty of Religious Studies of Ankara and the Faculty of Languages, History and Geography (DTCF). He founded the Türkiyat Institute and the journal of “Türkiyat” (1924). He was appointed as the President of the Türk Tarih Commission (1927) and he became a professor-in-ordinary in 1933.

Fuat Köprülü continued his academic membership in the Faculty of Literature at the Istanbul University and the DTCF of Ankara University after being elected as the Congressman from Kars in 1935. After being retired (1943), he took place among the founders of the Demokrat Party (DP) (1946) and he was on the duty of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of State when DP came into power in 1950 within the Governments of Adnan Menderes until 1956. He resigned from the DP after the elections of 1957. He was permitted to found the DP again with the name of Yeni Demokrat Party (1961) after 27th May. However, when the party didn’t take attention, he transferred the emblem of the party to the Adalet Party (AP) and he left politics. He was arrested for a short period in the revolution of 27 May 1960.

Fuat Köprülü was among the poets of the Fecr-i Ati community. He published his poems and his writings about the literary topics of the day, starting from 1908 in Mehasin and Servet-i Fünûn, and then later in Yeni Mecmua (1917-18) published by Ziya Gökalp. But he made his main reputation from his Turcology researches. Magazines and journals such as Akşam, Azerbaycan Yurt Bilgisi, Bilgi Mecmuası, Büyük Mecmua, Dergâh, Halka Doğru, Hayat, İkdam, Millî Tetebbular Mecmuası, Son Saat, Tanin, Tasvir-i Efkâr, Türk Yurdu, Türki­yat Mecmuası, Vatan and Yeni Mecmua were the principle media organs where his writings were published.

In 1924, he founded the Türkiyat Institute. He directed the journals Millî Tetebbular Mecmuası (1915), Türkiyat Mecmuası (1924) and Türk Hukuk ve İktisat Tarihi Mecmuası (1931-39) that he founded and the journal Ülkü (1936-41) of the Community Centers.

He introduced poets and writers such as Ahmet Fakih, Şeyyad Hamza and Hoca Dehhanî who were not known before by the world of science and literature. He participated in the National Literature Movement and he accomplished important services within this community. In parallel to the fact that Ziya Gökalp wanted to establish the philosophic bases of the Turkish Nationalism, Köprülü wrote writings that would create the artistic characteristics of the national literature conception.

Prof. Köprülü was accepted as an expert in his field and was among the members of many scientific institutions at home and abroad and he participated in the meetings of these institutions. He participated in various congresses organized in Paris, Baku, Oxford, Kharkiv and London as a representative of Turkey starting from 1923. He changed the classical biographic conception of the Turkish Literature and he changed it from being the subject of surveys that could be called naïve. He brought modern and scientific methods to the literature survey, he made himself accepted among thought and art entourages at a young age and he gained an international reputation in the field of literature history. He laid the foundation of literature history in its Western manner in our country with his survey named “Türk Edebiyatı Tarihinde Usûl”. Many of our forgotten values were brought to our literature by him with the modern history methods, by means of the researches he made. Especially his writings on the topics of Turkish literature history, Turkish civilization and Turkish cultural history, literary criticism, language and religion, Turkish art and music and Turkish political history were also valuable resources for the literature of today. Köprülü can also be counted as one of the founders of Turkish history, modern law and economic history. However, his poesy was not very successful compared to his works in other fields. The tone of the poems carrying personal characteristics that he wrote in his youth period were lost after he participated in the National Literature community and he didn’t publish his poems as a book. He brought more than 1500 articles and a great number of books to the Turkish literature by means of his books and his writings published in various newspapers and journals. Some of his articles were in the size of a book.

Dist. Prof. Fuat Köprülü deceased at the Balta Limanı Kemik Hospital in Istanbul and was buried in the Köprülü Cemetery that is in front of the Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmut… Between the years of 1908-12, he attended institutions such as Turkish Instution, Türk Yurdu Community and the Turkish Organization as a member. He was selected as the member of Soviet Sciences Academy in 1925 and as the communication member of the Körösi Csoma Hungarian Science Corporation in 1926. He was given the title of honorary doctorate of philosophy by the Heidelberg University in 1927, the title of honorary doctorate by the Athens University in 1937 and Sorbonne University in 1938. He was selected as the honorary member of the American History Community in 1959, as the honorary member of the Hungarian Science Academy in 1964 and the communication member of the School of Oriental and African Studies in London in the same year. He was married and the father of two children.

WORKS:

Kıraat-ı Edebiyye (1904), Hayat-ı Fikriyye (1909), Malumat-ı Edebiyye (with Şahabettin Süleyman, 1915), Yeni Osmanlı Tarihi Edebiyatı (with Ş. Süleyman, 1916), Turan’ın Kitabı (1916-17), Türk Dilinin Sarf ve Nahvi (1917), Mektep Şiirleri (3 volumes, 1918), Tevfik Fikret ve Ahlâkı (1918), Nasrettin Hoca  (50 stories in verse, 1918), Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar (1919), Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi I (1920), Millî Tarih (1921), Türkiye Tarihi I (1923), Külliyat-ı Fuzuli (1924), Türk Tarîh-i Dînîsi (1925), Azeri Edebiyatına Ait İlk Tetkikler (1926), Millî Edebiyat Cereyanının İlk Mübeşşirleri ve Divan-ı Türkî-i Basit (1928), Onyedinci Asır Saz Şairlerinden Cevheri (1929), XIX. Asır Saz Şairlerinden Erzurumlu Emrah (1929), XVI. Asır Sonuna Kadar Türk Saz Şâirleri (1930), Kayıkçı Kul Mustafa ve Genç Osman Hikâyesi (1930), Türk Tarihinin Ana Hatları (1931), Divan Edebiyatı Antolojisi (1932-34), Anadolu’da Türk Dili ve Edebiyatının Tekâmülüne Bir Bakış (1934), Eski Şairlerimiz-Divan Edebiyatı Antolojisi (1932-34), Fuzuli (1934), Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Hakkında Araştırmalar (1934), Türk Halk Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi 1 (1935), Les Origines de L’Empire Ottoman (Paris, 1935), Yıldırım Beyazıt’ın Esareti ve İntiharı Hakkında (1937), Orta Zaman Türk Hukuki Müesseseleri (1937-38), Vakıf Müessesesi ve Vakıf Vesikalarının Tarihî Ehemmiyeti (1938), Türk Şairleri, İndeksler ve Sözlükler (1939), Âşık Dertli (1940), Âşık Ömer (1940), Karacaoğlan (1940), İslâm Medeniyeti Tarihi (from Barthold, translation, 1940), Altınordu’ya Ait Yeni Araştırmalar (1941), Ortazaman Türk-İslâm Feodalizmi (1941), Ali Şir Nevâî (1941), Yeni Farisî’de Türk Unsurları (1942), XIII. Asırda Maraga Rasathanesi Hakkında Bazı Notlar (1942), Uran Kabilesi (1943), Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Etnik Menşei, Meseleleri (1943), Kayı Kabilesi Hakkında Yeni Notlar (1944), Osmanlı Devletinin Kuruluşu (1959), Türk Saz Şairleri Antolojisi (5 volumes: First four volumes 1940, last one volume 1962-64), Demokrasi Yolunda (1964), Edebiyat Araştırmaları (1966), Bizans Müesseselerinin Osmanlı Müesseselerine Tesiri (2002). 

REFERENCE: Türk Kültürü / Köp­rülü Özel Sayısı (Eylül 1966), Hilmi Ziya Ülken / Türkiye’de Çağdaş Düşünce Tarihi (c. 2, 1966), Türkiyat Mecmuası / Köprülü Hâtırası (c. 15, 1969),  Halil Berktay / Cumhuriyet İdeolojisi ve Fuat Köprülü (1983), Dr. Orhan F. Köprülü / Fuad Köprülü (1987), İhsan Işık / Yazarlar Sözlüğü (1990, 1998) - Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi (2001, 2004) – Encyclopedia of Turkish Authors (2005),  İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal İnal / Son Asır Türk Şairleri (c. I, 1999), Ömer Faruk Akün / TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi (c. 28, 2003), Şerif Aktaş / Mehmed Fuad Köprülü / Büyük Türk Klâsikleri (c.12, 2004), İhsan Işık / Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, 2007) - Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013), Remzi Demir - Doğan Atılgan / Elli Portre (2008).60

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