Statesman, writer (b. 1879, Sinop – d. 8 September 1942, İstanbul). He graduated from Military Medical School (1901) and worked as a surgeon at Gülhane Military Hospital (1905) and as an academician at Military Medical School (1907). With the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy he entered the world of politics and was elected as the parliamentary deputy of Sinop. He was imprisoned when he came into conflict with the administration of the Committee of Union and Progress and was exiled. He maintained his opposition to the administration abroad. After the armistice, he returned to İstanbul and was elected deputy again (1919). With the foundation of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey he came to Ankara and was appointed as the Minister of National Education in 1920 and of Health and Foreign Affairs in 1921. He was the envoy at the treaties of Moscow in 1921 and at those of the Ukraine and Kharkov in 1922. He was also among the envoys that were sent to the Conference of Lausanne. After the declaration of the republic he didn’t assume any important duties and after the assassination attempt on Atatürk in İzmir (1926), he went abroad, fearing himself in danger. He left Turkey and gave up his political career in 1927. He lived in Paris (1926 - 33) and Alexandria (1933-38). After the death of Atatürk he came back to Turkey. When he returned in 1938, he published the review Tanrıdağı with Turanist writers. He is buried in Merkez Efendi Cemetery (Section 4).
He was renowned for his work on history and literature as a Turanist writer and published the reviews Kopuz and Tanrıdağı. Among his 52 works, Türk Tarihi (Turkish History, in 14 volumes) is the most famous book. The book Hayat ve Hatıralarım (My Life and Memoirs, 1968) was prohibited as it is full of attacks against Atatürk and the revolution.
Servet-i Şahane ve Hakk-ı Millet (Great Wealth and the Right of the People, 1909), Meclis-i Mebusan’dan Fırkalar (Parties of the Ottoman Parliament, 1910), Tıbbiye Hayatından (Of Medical Life, 1911), Cemiyet-i Hafiye (The Secret Organization, 1914), Gurbet Dağarcığı (The Vocabulary of the Exile, 1919), Hürriyet ve İtilaf Nasıl Doğdu, Nasıl Öldü (Liberty and Agreement, How was It Born and How Did It Die? 1919), Türk Tarihi (Turkish History, in 14 volumes, 1924-26), Arab Şiir Birliği (The Arab Poetry Union, 1926), Hilalin Tarihi (History of the Crescent, 1933), Ali Şir Nevai (Ali Şir Nevai, 1935), Namık Kemal (Namık Kemal ,1936), Hücumlara Cevaplar (Replies to the Attacks Made, 1941), Hayat ve Hatıralarım (My Life and Memoirs, 1968).