Diğer İsimler
Ebû Nasr Muhammed b. Muhammed b. Tarhan b. Uzluk, Alfarabius, Avennasar

Philosopher (B. Vesic / Farâb (Otrar) / Kazakhistan, 870 – D. Damascus, 950). His full name is Ebû Nasr Muhammed b. Muhammed b. Tarhan b. Uzluk. According to those relying on İbni Ebi Üseybia and Şemseddin eş-Şehrezûrî, he is a Persian. According to the others who rely on İbni Halikan considering the adverb of “el-Türkî”, he was Turkish. In the Latin texts of the Mediaeval and in other works, his name is cited as “Alfarabius” or “Avennasar”. Farabî is among the most powerful philosophers of the Islamic philosophy. Following the “first master (teacher)” Aristoteles, he was known as the “second master” and referred to with this title within the history of philosophy and thought. While Ebû Yusuf Yakup b. İshak el-Kindi (795-870) called him the “first Arabian philosopher”, he is known as the “first Turkish philosopher” by some others. Although his date of death is not known exactly, supposedly he died on a Friday of the Month Recep in 950. The information about his father’s being a Turk and that he served as a commander is nearly certain.

Farabî completed his primary school education at Vesic, his birth place. When he was young, he migrated from Turkistan and travelled in Iran for some time. He received education in Khorasan, taught in Merv for a while and went to Baghdad, the centre of science and arts of the period and completed his higher education there. He also received training at Damascus and worked as a gardener during the day and read philosophy during the night. In Baghdad, he received logic lessons between 932-42, from Ebu Bişr Metta b.Yunus, who was known as the master of Aristoteles logic. Afterwards, he went to Khorasan and met the Christian scholar Yuhanna b. Haylan and improved his knowledge and training on logic and philosophy thanks to the lessons Farabî received from him. Farabî returned to Baghdad once again and reviewed the books of Aristot­le and Plato and he also wrote some books. The philosopher, who also went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and again returned back to Aleppo, lived a devout life there and died at eighty.

Although Farabî mainly dealt with philosophy and was recognized as a philosopher, he naturally improved himself nearly as much as an expert in other sciences which were directly or indirectly connected to philosophy. Mathematics and medicine were just two of his areas of interest. Although he didn’t make practice in medicine, his knowledge on medicine was deep. Music is a branch of art and science where Farabî is considered an expert both in practical and in theoretical sense. So it’s understood that, Farabî had education on philosophy, mathematics, music, logic, chemistry and medicine. Farabî is also the inventor of oud, the famous musical instrument of Turkish music.

  Farabî learnt Arabic during his educational life in Farab and dealt with sufism in Buhara. Baghdad, where he went afterwards in his fifties in 922, was considered as the centre of science and philosophy education he longed for. His canalizing to the philosophical sciences from the religious sciences may be explained by his admiration to the works of Plato and Aristotle when he was young. The period when Farabî proved his scientific and philosophical competency and become famous as a philosopher began with his movement to Baghdad.  

Farabî, through “Baghdad School” he was a member of, introduced Aristotle’s logic to the Islamic culture world, made arrangements allowing to separate philosophy and theology and separated philosophy from theology and made great contributions towards its being an individual discipline in the history of Islamic thought. Theology, which is called as “kalam” in the Islamic literature, was kept separately only with respect to methodology in the philosophy of Farabî. The difference between them is methodological rather than structural.

According to Farabî, logic is a starting point and preliminary for pure philosophy. The philosophy is divided into two parts as physics and metaphysics. Physics covers special sciences (the psychology involving also the theory of knowledge). Metaphysics consists of the philosophy of physics and theoretical philosophy. It also involves ethics and morality. Farabî aimed at reconciling his syncretic (combining opposing beliefs) philosophy with Islamic doctrine. He also attributed great importance to the spiritual purity and grounded his philosophical thought on it. In other words, Farabî deserves the title of the founder of “rational mysticism” in the history of Islamic philosophy. He advised reaching conclusions through mathematics and logic in the researches on natural and mental sciences. Since philosophy is the science of all beings, the one who reaches the being resembles the God. Since Farabî made a synthesis of several systems possibly reconcilable, he followed an eclectic (and conciliating) methodology. He is accepted as an authority (someone with the power of sanction) of philosophy.

According to Farabî, the science obtained with close (related) evidences is the most preceding and most superior of all sciences, and other sciences are governed by it. This science constitutes the final happiness. All that this science involves has been determined in the Greek language. It is certainly called as mystery (wisdom) and its love as the philosophy...

The books about Farabî were written by the authors of Islamic world such as Ebul Hasan el-Beyhaki, İbn-el-Kıfti, İbn bu Useybiye, İbn el-Hallikan several centuries after the death of Farabî. However, rather than being researches, these works were collecting myths about Farabî and describing a saint rather than a philosopher... A portrait of Farabî takes place on the back of the Kazakhstan 200 banknote. It’s also an indicator of his prestige in the Turkish and Islamic world.


İhsan’l-Ulum (In the work, the sciences are divided into five: 1) Linguistics and its branches, 2) Logic and its branches, 3) Teaching Sciences: Number, Mathematics, Astronomy, Music, Weight Units and Measure Sciences, 4) Natural Sciences, Theology and its branches, 5) "Civil" Sciences and its branches: Fiqh and Kalam.), Commentary on the Posterior Analytics, Commentary on the Prior Analytics, Commentary on the Eisagoge, Commentary on the Topics, Commentary on the Sophistica, Commentary on the Categories, A Pamphlet on Obligatory and Physical Prologues and On Propositions and Syllogisms Used By All Sciences (These are the articles and books transferring into Arabic, explaining and interpreting the Aristotle’s logic and Greek philosophy and the works incorporating his own opinions especially in the fields of logic, metaphysics and the philosophy of politics. The names of the books were given with their English translations.), Philosophy of Plato, Philosophy of Aristotle), Inventory of Sciences (Together with these two works, most comprehensive one of the works in Arabic which are introductory for Aristotleism and Platonism),  Kitabu's-Sema, el-Asaru'l-Ulviyye, Kitabu'l-Meadin, Kitabu'n-Nebat, Kitabu'n-Nefs, Kitabu's-Sıhha ve'l-Maraz, Kitabu'l-Hayat ve'l-Mevt, Kitabu'l-Hiss ve'l-Mahsus ve Kitabu Hareketi'l-Hayavan (Works on physics and cosmology.), Telhisu Nevamisi Eflâtun (Summary of the Laws of Plato), Felsefetu Eflâtun (Philosophy of Plato and el-Cem' Beyne Ra’yayi’l-Hakimeyn (Correlation of the Opinions of Two Philosophers), İhsau’l-Ulum (Inventory of Sciences), Kitabu’l-Cedel (Dialectic), Kitabu’l-Burhan (Book on Proof), Kitabu’s-Siyaseti’l-Medeniyye (Book on Human Behaviour), Tahsilu’s-Saade (Gaining the Happiness), el-Medinetü’i-Fazıla (The Virtuous City), Fususu’l-Medeni (The Philosophy of Politics), Kitabu’l-Huruf (Book of Letters-Philosophy of Language), El-Cem Beyne Rayeyi’l-Hakimeyn (Comparison of the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle), İhsau’l-Ulum (Inventory of Sciences), Kitabu’l-Huruf (Philosophy of Language), Ta’likat (In this work, Farabi tells that all creatures have come into existence through overflowing from God), Tahsilu’s-Saade (Gaining the Happiness), Medinetü’l-Fadıla (Rather, it is a work on political science and sociology.), Risâle fî Kavniîni Sına’ati’ş’Şir (Pamphlet on the Laws of the Art of Poem).


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