Mahmud Esad Efendi

Devlet Adamı, Siyaset Bilimci, Hukukçu

18 Mart, 1918
Istanbul University Faculty of Law
Diğer İsimler
İbnü’l Emin Mahmud Es’ad Seydişehri

Statesman, scientist of politics and law (b. 1855, Seydişehir / Konya - d. 18 March 1918, İstanbul). His full name was İbnü'l - Emin Mahmud Es'ad Seydişehri. Certain resources indicate that Es’ad Efendi was from Seydişehir in origin and was born in Sandıklı province in Afyon. He is the son of Muhammed Emin Efendi of Çopuoğulları, who was also known as Nâib (Islamic regent) Güzel Efendizâde. He received his primary education in Seydişehir and Konya and later moved to İstanbul. For fifteen years, he attended lectures given by Muslim preachers of the mosques, especially by those of Elbasanlı Abdulkerim Efendi. He studied reason, philosophy, Islamic theology, analyzing the Koran, canon law and canonical jurisprudence methods. In 1881, he received his Madrasah (Muslim Theology School) diploma on apparatus and advanced science. Later in the same year, he was given the title titular professor, after passing the exam held by the Science Council, which was established by the Sheikh-ul-Islam. He studied mathematics, geometry, algebra, history, geography, physics, chemistry and mechanics at the preparatory class for teachers at Military Training School and gave lectures to the students of Madrasah at Fatih Mosque. He also took French and painting lessons then he was fully accepted to Military School with help from Edhem Paşa and on the decision of the Military Training Council, being the first civilian to do so. He studied some branches of exact sciences at advanced level. He passed an exam held in 1884 and received his Advanced Mathematics Teaching diploma. On 18 June 1880, he enrolled in Istanbul University, Faculty of Law and graduated with honors in 1886. He attended lectures on international law given by Hasan Fehmi Paşa, jurisprudence by Münif Paşa and special state law by Gabriel Norandunkyan Efendi.

In 1879, when he was 24, he was appointed teacher of Ottoman language and Religious Instruction at Gülhane Military High School, which was his first office. At the same time, he entered the exam of the City Council and received his law license in 1882. In 1885, when he completed his law apprenticeship, he gave up teaching and he was appointed the First Chairman of Bidayet Court in Afyon, in addition he gave lectures on physics, chemistry, geology and biology at İzmir High School. During these years, he established friendships with men of literature in İzmir such as Halit Ziya (Uşaklıgil) and Tevfik Nevzad.

After he served in his post for ten years successfully, he was appointed the legal adviser to the Treasury and Finance Department in 1896. While he was serving in this post in İstanbul, he met the famous writer Ahmet Mithat Efendi and in addition gave lectures on general economics at the Faculty of Political Sciences. When Ali Şahbaz Efendi passed away, he began to give lectures on international law, beginning in 1898. A year later, he began to give lectures on Civil Code, Judgment and Administration of Justice at the Faculty of Law. In 1900, he began to give lectures on the history of Islam at İstanbul University Faculty of literature. His position helped him to progress in his studies on history and history of Islam. In 1907, he was given the office of inspector in the province of Rumelia. After the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy and the revisions in the curriculum in the school of politics, he resigned from giving lectures on international scientific discoveries and international law. In 1908, he was appointed to the Inspectorate of the Finance Ministry. In 1909, he was appointed to the Ministry of Land Registry in the government of Hüseyin Hilmi Paşa. He also served as a deputy minister in the Ministry of Justice.

When he was the Minister of Land Registry, he pioneered the reformation of the legislation of land registry. In 1913, he was appointed the Chairman of the office of the Council of the State Tanzimat. On 17 September 1915, he entered parliament as the minister of Isparta, however, 17 days later, on 3 November 1915, he wanted to resign from his parliamentary mandate and retire but his demand was rejected. During his deputyship, he went on with his duties as professor and gave lectures on international law and Islamic law at Law School. He was still a deputy when he passed away on 18 March 1915. He had three sons and two daughters from his marriage to Refiye Hanım in 1899. His daughters: Nezahat, Fatma; his sons: Ahmet Ertuğrul, chief military judge; Ömer İsfendiyar, chief military judge; Mehmet Korkut, chief military judge.

M. Esad Efendi received various ranks, medals and degrees on various dates. In 1896, he received the rank of judge, in 1899 the rank of the judge of Mecca and Medina, in 1893 The Forth Rank Medal of Âli Osmanî, in 1900 the Golden Merit Medal, in 1902 the First Degree Medal of Ali Osmanî and many others.

WORKS (in the Julian calendar):

TEXT BOOK: İktisad (Economy, 1211, 1226), İtmâm-ı Temyiz (Completing the Selection, 1299), İlmu'l Arz ve'l Meâdin (Knowledge of Life on this World and the Life to Come, Kısm-ı Amelî, Practical Section- 1303), Tarih-i Sanayi (History of Industry, 1307), Tasnif-i Tabiî (Classification in the Nature, biology, 1311), Hukuk-ı Hususiye-i Düvel (Nations’ Law, 1312), Hukuk-u Düvel (International Law, 4 volumes, 1326-1330), Tarih -i İlm-i Hukuk (History of Science of Law, 1331).

RELIGIOUS WORKS: Usûl-i Fıkıh (Methodology of Islamic Law, 1302), Ravzatu'l-Cennât fi Usûli'l İtikad (The Garden of Eden in Different Religions, 1305), Telhis-i Usul-i Fıkıh  (A Summary of the Methodology of Islamic Law, 1309), Din-i İslâm (Islam, 1314), Şeriat-ı İslamiye ve Mister Carlyle (Canonical Law in Islam and Mr. Carlyle, critique of the section entitled ‘Muhammed the Hero’ in Carlyle’s “Heros”, 1315), Usûl-u Hadis  (Methodology of Hadis*, 1316), Taaddud-i Zevcât  (Polygamy, with Fatma Aliye, daughter of Cevdet Paşa, 1316), Ferâizu'l Ferâiz (Requirements Concerning Heritage, 1326), Kitabü'n-Nikâh (Book of Marriage, 1328), Kitabü'n-Nikâh ve'l Talak (Book of Marriage and Divorce, 1328), Tarih-i Din-i İslâm (History of Islam, 3 volumes,1327-1342; new edition, 1995, simplified and edited by Ahmet Lütfi Kazancı - Osman Kazancı, with a prologue by Süleyman Uludağ), Tarih-i Edyân (History of Religions, 1330), Müdafaa - Misyonerlere Cevap (Defense – An Answer to Missionaries, 1331).

In addition, he translated many works.

REFERENCE: Ebu’lula Mardin / Huzur Dersleri (s. 338, 1966), Mücellidoğlu Ali Çankaya / Yeni Mülkiye Tarihi ve Mülkiyeliler (c. II, 1968), İrfan Ünver Nasrattınoğlu / Afyonkarahisarlı Şairler Yazarlar Hattatlar (1971), Mahmud Es’ad Efendi / Tarihi Dini İslâm (Süleyman Uludağ’ın önsözü, 1995), İhsan Işık / Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) - Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013). 



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