Statesman, scientist of politics and law (b. 1855, Seydişehir / Konya - d. 18 March 1918, İstanbul). His full name was İbnü'l - Emin Mahmud Es'ad Seydişehri. Certain resources indicate that Es’ad Efendi was from Seydişehir in origin and was born in Sandıklı province in Afyon. He is the son of Muhammed Emin Efendi of Çopuoğulları, who was also known as Nâib (Islamic regent) Güzel Efendizâde. He received his primary education in Seydişehir and Konya and later moved to İstanbul. For fifteen years, he attended lectures given by Muslim preachers of the mosques, especially by those of Elbasanlı Abdulkerim Efendi. He studied reason, philosophy, Islamic theology, analyzing the Koran, canon law and canonical jurisprudence methods. In 1881, he received his Madrasah (Muslim Theology School) diploma on apparatus and advanced science. Later in the same year, he was given the title titular professor, after passing the exam held by the Science Council, which was established by the Sheikh-ul-Islam. He studied mathematics, geometry, algebra, history, geography, physics, chemistry and mechanics at the preparatory class for teachers at Military Training School and gave lectures to the students of Madrasah at Fatih Mosque. He also took French and painting lessons then he was fully accepted to Military School with help from Edhem Paşa and on the decision of the Military Training Council, being the first civilian to do so. He studied some branches of exact sciences at advanced level. He passed an exam held in 1884 and received his Advanced Mathematics Teaching diploma. On 18 June 1880, he enrolled in Istanbul University, Faculty of Law and graduated with honors in 1886. He attended lectures on international law given by Hasan Fehmi Paşa, jurisprudence by Münif Paşa and special state law by Gabriel Norandunkyan Efendi.
In 1879, when he was 24, he was
appointed teacher of Ottoman language and Religious Instruction at Gülhane
Military High School, which was his first office. At the same time, he entered the
exam of the City Council and received his law license in
After he served in his post for ten
years successfully, he was appointed the legal adviser to the Treasury and
Finance Department in 1896. While he was serving in this post in İstanbul, he
met the famous writer Ahmet Mithat Efendi and in addition gave lectures on
general economics at the Faculty of Political Sciences. When Ali Şahbaz Efendi
passed away, he began to give lectures on international law, beginning in
When he was the Minister of Land Registry, he pioneered the reformation of the legislation of land registry. In 1913, he was appointed the Chairman of the office of the Council of the State Tanzimat. On 17 September 1915, he entered parliament as the minister of Isparta, however, 17 days later, on 3 November 1915, he wanted to resign from his parliamentary mandate and retire but his demand was rejected. During his deputyship, he went on with his duties as professor and gave lectures on international law and Islamic law at Law School. He was still a deputy when he passed away on 18 March 1915. He had three sons and two daughters from his marriage to Refiye Hanım in 1899. His daughters: Nezahat, Fatma; his sons: Ahmet Ertuğrul, chief military judge; Ömer İsfendiyar, chief military judge; Mehmet Korkut, chief military judge.
M. Esad Efendi received various ranks, medals and degrees on various dates. In 1896, he received the rank of judge, in 1899 the rank of the judge of Mecca and Medina, in 1893 The Forth Rank Medal of Âli Osmanî, in 1900 the Golden Merit Medal, in 1902 the First Degree Medal of Ali Osmanî and many others.
WORKS (in the Julian calendar):
TEXT BOOK: İktisad (Economy, 1211, 1226), İtmâm-ı Temyiz (Completing the Selection, 1299), İlmu'l Arz ve'l Meâdin (Knowledge of Life on this World and the Life to Come, Kısm-ı Amelî, Practical Section- 1303), Tarih-i Sanayi (History of Industry, 1307), Tasnif-i Tabiî (Classification in the Nature, biology, 1311), Hukuk-ı Hususiye-i Düvel (Nations’ Law, 1312), Hukuk-u Düvel (International Law, 4 volumes, 1326-1330), Tarih -i İlm-i Hukuk (History of Science of Law, 1331).
RELIGIOUS WORKS: Usûl-i Fıkıh (Methodology of Islamic Law, 1302), Ravzatu'l-Cennât fi Usûli'l İtikad (The Garden of Eden in Different Religions, 1305), Telhis-i Usul-i Fıkıh (A Summary of the Methodology of Islamic Law, 1309), Din-i İslâm (Islam, 1314), Şeriat-ı İslamiye ve Mister Carlyle (Canonical Law in Islam and Mr. Carlyle, critique of the section entitled ‘Muhammed the Hero’ in Carlyle’s “Heros”, 1315), Usûl-u Hadis (Methodology of Hadis*, 1316), Taaddud-i Zevcât (Polygamy, with Fatma Aliye, daughter of Cevdet Paşa, 1316), Ferâizu'l Ferâiz (Requirements Concerning Heritage, 1326), Kitabü'n-Nikâh (Book of Marriage, 1328), Kitabü'n-Nikâh ve'l Talak (Book of Marriage and Divorce, 1328), Tarih-i Din-i İslâm (History of Islam, 3 volumes,1327-1342; new edition, 1995, simplified and edited by Ahmet Lütfi Kazancı - Osman Kazancı, with a prologue by Süleyman Uludağ), Tarih-i Edyân (History of Religions, 1330), Müdafaa - Misyonerlere Cevap (Defense – An Answer to Missionaries, 1331).
In addition, he translated many works.
REFERENCE: Ebu’lula Mardin / Huzur Dersleri (s. 338, 1966), Mücellidoğlu Ali Çankaya / Yeni Mülkiye Tarihi ve Mülkiyeliler (c. II, 1968), İrfan Ünver Nasrattınoğlu / Afyonkarahisarlı Şairler Yazarlar Hattatlar (1971), Mahmud Es’ad Efendi / Tarihi Dini İslâm (Süleyman Uludağ’ın önsözü, 1995), İhsan Işık / Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) - Ünlü Bilim Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 2, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).