Sultan of Great
Seljuklu Empire (B. August 6, 1055- D.
November 20, 1092). His full name is Muizzuddin Ebul feth; and he is son of
Seljuk Sultan Alpaslan, who had opened the gates of
During the reign
Mosque is among the first mosques in
raised carefully by his father Alpaslan. He has received religious information
from the scholars of that period and also was trained as a skillful fighter by
the warriors. He was interested in governing when he was eight years old. When
he was ten, he joined the
has officially declared the beloved, Islam-oriented, and skillful leader
Meliksah as his crown prince in 1066 and stated this to everyone around. When
Alpaslan was martyred in 1072; Meliksah became the sultan of
Meliksah spent the first two years of his reign by appeasing the internal
fights and defending the borders of state. He had appointed Nizamulmulk, a
skillful ruler, as his vizier with vast authority. He fought against the
Karakhanid and Ghaznavid states which threatened the state and defeated them.
During the first years of his reign; his uncle Kavurd had revolted to seize the
rule; he defeated his uncle and established order within his country.
Meanwhile, Karkhanid and Ghaznavid states have collaborated against
The greatest ideal of Meliksah was to unite all Muslim states and to establish the Islam Union. He began to work to achieve this goal. He had close relations with Caliph Kaim bin Amrulah. Caliph has entitled Meliksah as "Mu'izze'ddin" and "Celaluddevle" and with "Kasım Emire'l Mu'minin", which was the first time to be entitled to a ruler and meant the greatest supporter of caliphate.
Turcoman armies have conquered the Yesilırmak, Kelkit and Coruh
basins and reached to the Aegean shores by capturing Alasehir. Another branch
of the army has defeated Byzantine armies around
has expanded the lands of
He has devoted his life to do good and useful things for Islam and prayed as follows:
"Oh God, if I am to be useful for Islam, help me, make me victorious. If my opponent will be useful for Islam, then help him, make him victorious."
Nizamulmulk was among the strongest viziers of Meliksah and he was assasinated by the fadain of Hasan Sabbah. In the same year, on November 20, 1092, he was poisoned and murdered by unidentified people when he was only thirty-seven years old. His funeral was taken to Isfahand and buried to the tomb next to the madrasah he made built.
During the reign of Meliksah, a structured Divan (government) organization and a permanent army consisting of half million soldiers was established with the help and effort of his Grand Vizier Nızamulmulk. He added extra allowances into the state budget to protect poor people, scientists and artists. Scholars and artists were protected; he had great interest in them; visited the scholars personally and respected their knowledge and personalities. Important scholars such as İmam-ı Gazali, Kaşgarlı Mahmut, Cürcânî were raised during his period.
Nızamulmulk pioneered the establishment of
Nizamiye Madrasahs which had great contributions for the dieological
development in 11th century Minor Asia and
Meliksah has developed the Seljuk lands and prospered the people. He had Nizamiye madrasahs established in major settlements. Science, culture, agirculture, industry and trade improved during his reign. His Vizier Nizamulmulk referred his ideas as follows: "Meliksah is religious, respectful to scholars, good to spiritualists, compassionate to the poor and just to the people. These are attributes very rare in a world leader." In his country, science and justice was praised; peace and welfare ruled, and a wealthy empire was established.
REFERENCE: İbrahim Kafesoğlu / Sultan Melikşah Devrinde Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu (1953) - Sultan Melikşah (1973), Osman Turan / Türkiye Selçukluları Hakkında Resmî Vesikalar (1958) - Selçuklular Zamanında Türkiye (1971), Ahmed bin Mahmud / Selçukname (1977), TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi (c. 29, s. 54, 2004), Erdoğan Merçil / Büyük Selçuklu Devleti (2005), İhsan Işık / Ünlü Devlet Adamları (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 1, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).