Poet (b. 1847, Gelenbe / Manisa - d. 22 May 1912, Manisa). His real name was Mehmet Eşref. He studied in Manisa Hatuniye Madrasah Muslim Theology School. He learnt Arabic and Persian. He worked as head secretary in Manisa Governorship (1870) and as district revenue officer in Turgutlu, Akçahisar and Alaşehir. He was appointed to Fatsa District Governorship in 1879. He could not serve efficiently his duty because of his weakness to alcohol and entertainment. He was deposed from office for being joined in a corruption. After he was acquitted, he worked as district governor in Çapakçur, Hizan, Ünye, Tirebolu, Garzan, Acıpayam, Buldan, Kula, Kırkağaç, Daday and Gördes. When he was the Gördes District Governor, he was arrested as political offender and brought to İstanbul. He was sentenced for one year as having illegal documents in his house in İzmir (1902). He was kept under surveillance in İzmir. When he was released, he escaped to Egypt (1903). He moved from Egypt to Paris, Switzerland and Cyprus. He struggled with the governance of Abdülhamit II with the humor newspaper Curcuna that he published in Egypt where he returned.
His four book contains his satiric poems were published in Egypt. He returned to İstanbul after the declaration of Second Constitutional Monarchy. He published the reviews Eşref and Musavver Eşref, of which he was the editorial writer. Some of his poems and articles were published in the review Edeb Yahu which was published in İzmir. He retired when he was the assistant of Adana Governor, then settled in Dedeağaç.
Poet Eşref who gained famous as being the greatest satire poet of Turkish literature, wrote all of his poems in the forms of Divan* Literature and in the form of satire, and most of his poems contained much of slang words, therefore can be seen as obscene. He told about the injustices in the period of Abdülhamit governance and amusement situations rooted from the westernization with a keen and intelligent style.
Deccal (Antichrist, 2 volumes, 1904-1907), İstimdad (Asking for Help, 1908), Şah ve Padişah (Shah and Sultan, 1906), Hasbihal Yahut Eşref ve Kemal (Heart to Heart Talking or Eşref and Kemal, 1908), İran'da Yangın Var (Fire in Iran, 1908), Sultan Abdülhamit'in Evail-i Saltanatı (Before the Sovereignty of Sultan Abdülhamit, 1908).
REFERENCE: Mustafa Şatim / Şair Eşref’in Hayatı (1943), Mehmet Zeki Pakalın / Resmi Siciline Göre Şair Eşref (Akademi, c. 1, sayı: 4, 1946), İbrahim Alaettin Gövsa / Türk Meşhurları Ansiklopedisi (1946), Hikmet Dizdaroğlu / Doğumunun 98’inci Yıldönümünde-Şair Eşref’e Dair (Hisar, sayı: 16, Ağustos 1951), İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal İnal / Son Asır Türk Şairleri (c. I, 1999), Behçet Necatigil / Edebiyatımızda İsimler Sözlüğü (18. bas. 1999), Şükran Kurdakul / Şairler ve Yazarlar Sözlüğü (6. bas. 1999), TBE Ansiklopedisi (2001), Mehmet Nuri Yardım / Edebiyatımızın Güleryüzü (2002), İhsan Işık / Yazarlar Sözlüğü (1990, 1998) - Türkiye Yazarlar Ansiklopedisi (2001, 2004) – Encyclopedia of Turkish Authors (2005) - Resimli ve Metin Örnekli Türkiye Edebiyatçılar ve Kültür Adamları Ansiklopedisi (2006, gen. 2. bas. 2007) – Ünlü Edebiyatçılar (Türkiye Ünlüleri Ansiklopedisi, C. 4, 2013) - Encyclopedia of Turkey’s Famous People (2013).